Archive for the ‘Editing’ Category


And my work here is done!

December 11, 2019

One of the environmental scientist authors I work with emailed me this earlier this week:

I’m reading the book ‘Sapiens’. It is written by a scientist and littered with ‘in order to’. Great book but I feel like putting a pen through the unnecessary words. You’ve ruined it for me :-)

My work here is done!


Lessons learned from a corporate report

November 30, 2019

I recently did a few editing passes on a 640+ page environmental report that was to be submitted to a federal regulatory authority. I wasn’t able to fully edit the report, but I was able to tame the formatting issues in Word (including making sure all tables had a similar look), check for inconsistencies in common terms and phrases, fix the cross-references to other sections/figures/tables/appendices, check the abbreviations/acronyms list reflected the abbreviations used in the document, ensure nonbreaking spaces were used between values and units of measure, etc. There was no corporate template or style guide to use (the company is very young), though someone had put a very basic template together—cover page, headers/footers and the like—but hadn’t set up styles, therefore the formatting of bullets, numbers, body text etc. was all over the place. Multiple authors had worked on this report, and each had done something a little different with their formatting, and varied in the terms they used and whether they capitalised or hyphenated them or not.

After I returned the document to my contact, she asked if there were some ‘lessons learned’ that she could share with her boss and others involved in the document. Here’s a summary of the email I wrote to her:

  1. Template: Get a corporate report template in place, with as many necessary styles in it and sample tables set up ready to be copy/pasted and modified. Learn how to use it and WHY you should use it.
  2. Style guide/sheet: In the absence of a full style guide, set up a corporate style sheet that lists the preferred ways of spelling/using terms (e.g. the correct spellings/hyphenations for place names, words that can trip you up – e.g. wellhead/well-head/well head, tophole/top-hole/top hole). Make your authors use it, and that you forward it to whoever edits your docs so that they can follow the decisions already made.
  3. Styles:
    • Discourage writers from using the buttons on the Word toolbar for bullets and numbers (there be dragons!) – use the relevant List Bullet and List Number styles
    • Learn how to apply styles to new text, and how to paste text from another doc and format it correctly (NEVER copy across section breaks, for example – more dragons lie there!)
    • Learn how to apply table formatting/styles – for example, in the [company] doc there’s a special button on the Table Tools > Design tab for applying the green table, but I wonder how many know how to use it and instead spend ages setting up the borders, shading etc. manually.
  4. Clickable cross-references (x-refs):
    • In the absence of a program like EndNote, learn how to do x-ref numbered citations so you don’t end up with [CorporateAuthor] 2019a, 2019b, 2019c etc. This sort of citation is a nightmare to update
    • Learn how to assign x-refs (clickable links are recommended for anything that’s going to be PDF’d and read on screen).
  5. References: Make sure authors are CONSISTENT in doing references, specifically when to apply italics, what punctuation to use, how to indicate when a URL was valid etc. (a style guide would help here). I didn’t check any for accuracy, but verifying references online is a BIG job to do after the fact—far easier for the author to grab ALL the citation details when they are writing the doc.
  6. Terms: Make sure authors are pedantic about adding initialisms/acronyms/abbrevs, units of measure etc. to the relevant terms lists—it’s easier to check if something is there or not than to create the list from scratch after writing the doc. I use software macros that can pull out some of this, but not all.
  7. Unlearn/break bad habits that work for university but not for business/corporate writing. Think like a business person with limited time and NOT like a uni researcher! The habit of writing to a word or page count has been ingrained since about Year 5 and reinforced all the way through to doctorates and, later, journal and other publications. Business reports need to be succinct, use plain language, and get to the point in as few words as possible, without losing meaning. Some examples of bad habits:
  8. Learn new habits: e.g. keyboard shortcuts for things like nonbreaking spaces (Ctrl+Shift+<spacebar>), turn on/off track changes (Ctrl+Shift+e), add a comment (Ctrl+Shift+m), change case (Shift+F3).

I also mentioned and linked to presentations I’ve given to government departments, editors groups, and conferences on plain language writing and on working more efficiently with Microsoft Word (


Catching potentially expensive errors of fact

June 30, 2019

How much does an editor really save a company compared to how much you pay them? Here’s a recent example…

I edit a lot of documents written by those in companies associated with the heavily regulated Australian oil and gas industry. Many are environmental management plans or safety case documents that must be approved by state and/or federal regulatory bodies before a multi-billion dollar project (e.g. a new drilling platform, pipeline, or processing plant) can go ahead. So getting these approval documents right the first time is important—it costs a LOT of money if the approvals process is held up because of errors in the documents. Errors mean they have to go through another round of corrections, technical, editorial, and legal review, and submissions, and this can take months—in this industry, months of delays equals a LOT of money.

Which is why the small thing I caught the other day could have had very expensive implications (both in cost and reputation) for the Big Company who had contracted out the document to the Specialist Company I was working for.

The document detailed the Big Company’s compliance with a piece of federal legislation and a program that resulted from that legislation (I expect these paragraphs were copy/pasted from a similar document written by Big Company some years ago). I wasn’t familiar with the Act, so I checked for its correct wording and date, as well as the official name of the program—I believe that this is part of my job as an editor. Imagine my surprise when I clicked on the federal government link to find out the Act (and the program) were repealed five years’ ago! And neither was replaced with anything else, which meant that all Big Company’s statements about how they were complying with the Act were now called into question. I flagged it in a comment to the author (adding links for them to verify what I found), and made sure I included that information in my final email to my contact at the Specialist Company when I sent the edited document back. She was stunned and very grateful to me for picking it up—none of the authors had.

Now, because all these documents go through Big Company’s legal department before submission, you might wonder why it wasn’t picked up by them. Well, what tends to happen is that the Specialist Company writes the document (often based on previous documents supplied by Big Company), I edit it for the Specialist Company, then when it’s all OK from their end, they give it to Big Company, who then have their technical specialists and lawyers review it before it gets submitted to the federal/state regulators for approval. Yes, it’s likely that Big Company’s legal department would have picked it up, but that would have then cast doubt on the reputation of the Specialist Company. And had it slipped through that final check, someone in the regulators’ offices would have picked it up—after all, they need to know the relevant Acts and compliance stuff backwards—which meant it would have been sent back and the approvals process started again.

So what sort of costs did my fact checking potentially save? Here are some:

  • financial costs of the document going through further rounds of reviews (costs borne by Big Company, Specialist Company, and regulators)
  • time costs of the approval being delayed because of further rounds of reviews (time costs borne by Big Company, Specialist Company, and regulators)
  • reputation costs for Big Company in the eyes of the regulators
  • reputation costs for Specialist Company in the eyes of Big Company (with potential loss of current and future contracts as a result)
  • if the compliance program is still operating despite the Act being repealed, then the costs Big Company pays and has paid over the past five years for compliance audits, meetings, travel to (remote) site, accommodation and meals at site, etc.

If you think an editor’s rates seem high, then consider the cost of NOT getting such a document edited. In the scheme of things, my fee was a drop in a very large ocean, yet could have potentially saved hundreds of thousands—if not millions—of dollars.

[This post was republished on the ACES blog, 25 November 2019:]


IPEd Conference 2019: Day 2

May 12, 2019

Last week (8 to 10 May 2019) I attended the biennial IPEd Conference (Institute of Professional Editors, the national association of Australian [and now New Zealand] editors), held in Melbourne. These notes summarise MY experience at the conference and my opinions and represent no-one else’s experience or opinions. I took notes for many of the sessions I attended, but as there were several concurrent streams, these notes in no way reflect the full breadth of the conference sessions.

NOTE: Many of the sessions were only 10 minutes long and there was limited changeover time. Some session notes may be missing if I had to leave for the next session before the current session’s presenter finished.

There were quite a few plenary sessions today, and only one time slot where multiple sessions ran concurrently. The first was a 90-minute plenary on the state of IPEd, with information and updates from the chairs of various standing committees. And at the end of the day was the closing ceremony, where various awards were handed out, and the dates and location of the next conference were announced: Hobart Grand Chancellor, 28 to 30 June 2021. I heard a rumour that the 2023 conference will be held in New Zealand, but have no idea if that’s true or not.

Katherine Bode: ‘Digital Collections: Archival and editorial impulses remixed’ (plenary session)

The title of this session gave no clue as to how fascinating it would be! Katherine started off by describing the archival impulse as that which curates, collects, and categorises, whereas the editorial impulse is to transfer that archival impulse into material suitable for specific audiences.

I was still none the wiser when she showed how a Google image search for ‘editing’ gave a lot of images of computer screens etc, whereas an image search for ‘editing writing’ gave images of red pens on paper.

Back to the editorial impulse… she then asked what if you combined the editing impulse with extensive (hundreds of thousands) archives of materials. What were challenges in editing that number of documents? And then she introduced us to ‘To be continued… The Australian Newspaper Fiction Database’ project (

Back in the 19th century, Australia didn’t have a book publishing industry, or at least, not a thriving one, and so newspapers, which were prevalent and cheap, were the main way people read fiction. Sometimes a newspaper would publish a complete short story; other times it would serialise a novel. Hundreds of thousands of pieces of fiction were published this way in Australian newspapers in the 19th century.

The database the project team used was Trove (—a part of the National Library of Australia (NLA), which has digitised Australia’s newspapers since 2010. Trove (which I use for genealogical research and which I help edit on occasion) is the largest open-access collection of digitised newspapers in the world. By 2015, about 30% of Australia’s newspapers had been scanned and OCR’d. The problem with OCR is that a machine does a ’best match’ for what it thinks a character might be, which means there are many errors in the transcriptions.

The next challenge was how to identify what was fiction in these newspapers. They didn’t all have a heading of ‘Fiction’, so the team used various Trove search algorithms and Trove’s API to narrow it down, and narrowed further by adding ‘paratext’ to the searches—words such as serial, author, chapter, tales, story, novelist, novella, etc. They went from hundreds of thousands of potential fiction articles to 21,000 after they’d cleaned up the data.

They then analysed that data to see if some assumptions about fiction writing and publishing in 19th century Australian newspapers held true; the main assumptions were:

  • most fiction (80%) was by British authors
  • fiction was published almost entirely in metro newspapers, with little published in provincial newspapers; if fiction was published in provincial newspapers, it was assumed that it had been pirated from a metro source
  • according to academics, early colonial readers in Australia were uninterested in Australian fiction.

What they found in the data was quite a different story! Yes, there was quite a lot of British fiction, but not as much as expected. About 25% of the fiction was Australian, 50% British, 20% American, and 5% from other countries.

They also found hundreds of new titles by known Australian authors, and even more by unknown Australian authors (all of which added to their database of author names to search for).

As far as where fiction was published, only 45% was in metro papers, with 55% published by the provincial press. And the sources of the fiction? The metro papers often published the same title at the same time, getting syndicated fiction from a British or American agency. Similarly, provincial newspapers often published the same title at the same time (but NOT the same title as the metro papers) because they got their material from different syndication agencies. These provincial syndication agencies often crossed state lines too, so the same story might be published in NSW and Victorian regions. The team wasn’t aware of these different syndicated sources prior to their study. There was an assumption that most fiction in newspapers was published in the metro papers, then syndicated to the provincial papers in the same state, but this wasn’t the case. The provincial syndicates that operated across the country were the largest publishers of Australian fiction in the 19th century. All this refutes the claim that The Bulletin was the origin of Australian literary culture. And it refutes the claim that Australian readers had no interest in Australian fiction.

Newspapers reflect what their readers want, and in colonial Australia, readers chose Australian fiction. In fact ‘Australian’ was a common term in many of the fiction titles. And sometimes newspaper editors changed a overseas story to give it Australian locales and names!

The team used two computational methods in analysing the data:

  • topic grouping, with the 200 most popular words in an article shown graphically (like a word tag cloud)
  • decision trees, which look for tendencies in word usage and use dataset variables to see where they align [no, I didn’t understand this bit either!].

One thing they found was the consistent representation of aboriginal characters and women in the newspaper fiction. This contradicts the view of terra nullius. Interestingly, the Australian fiction chosen to be published as books in Britain rarely showed aboriginal or female characters (and rarely published Australian female writers), thus perpetuating what they [the British?] THOUGHT colonial Australia was. This is not reflected in the newspaper fiction, where aboriginals and women were depicted often, and where women fiction writers also had a voice (though some may have written under a male pseudonym in the hopes of getting published more easily).

The team has opened up the database to crowd sourcing, allowing people to fix transcription errors from the OCR. Contributors can also add any fiction they find that’s not already in the database. Public editing such as this can improve a digitised archive. Trove harvests the corrections each week and these go back into the main Trove database.

There were concerns regarding crowd sourcing: how to ensure quality, how to prevent errors from being introduced, etc. But nothing happened! Many of those who correct entries come from editing and associated professions and are passionate about getting it right and contributing to the archive. The feedback often refers to wanting to rescue stories from the database and turn them into books, and the team has already done so for some stories. Ultimately the aim is to have publication platform where people can curate their own collection and publish as ebooks or even printed books. Ebooks published by this process will also be harvested by the NLA/Trove and become another legitimate edition of the book.

Michael Webster: ‘The book is far from dead: A review of the 2018 book sales in Australia’ (plenary session)

(This was a last-minute replacement session as the person heading up the Style Manual review who was slotted to speak couldn’t do so under a caretaker government, with a federal election just a week away)

The ebook has NOT taken over—only about 18 to 20% of sales of all books in Australia are in ebook format.

[removed Bookscan data as I was informed that it was confidential]

Bookscan collects data about books actually sold (from point of sale systems), NOT what the publishers say they’ve sold to booksellers (~20% of publisher ‘sales’ are returned unsold). It captures more than 92% of book sales, including online sales, discount sales (e.g. BigW, Target), chain and independent bookshops. Note: BigW sells more books than anyone else in Australia.

Any bestseller lists from Bookscan are for sales two weeks prior. But what is a ‘best seller’? If you sell 3000 to 4000 copies of an Australian fiction title, that’s very good. Authors want to know number of sales, whereas publishers want to know the value of the sales.

Sales trends follow predictable peaks—school/uni return, mothers day, fathers day, and a HUGE spike in the weeks prior to Christmas, with almost nothing in January (bookshops are returning books to publishers in January). Some 13% of total sales for the year are in the Christmas peak, and many are cookbooks. If you want to publish a cookbook, make sure it’s in colour, is hardback, and is released near Christmas, but never after it.

The book sales market has been growing slowly but steadily the past few years. There was an appreciable drop when Angus and Robertson went under (they sold 20% of all books), and even more so in regional towns where their stores closed and weren’t taken over by other bookstores, leaving many towns without a bookstore.

Other information:

  • 2018 sales were driven by key non-fiction categories, with a slight lift in adult fiction.
  • YA lit is purchased by teenagers, whereas children’s books are purchased by adults.
  • The Barefoot Investor took the number one spot in 2018.
  • Australian authors took six of the top 10 spots in fiction sales in 2018.
  • Chains/online sales had 55% share of the market, then DDS (what’s DDS?) and independent bookstores.
  • US/Canadian bookstores can’t compete with Amazon on price (though he didn’t say anything about the effect, if any, Amazon Australia has had on sales).
  • The top nine adult fiction publishers in Australia account for 95% of ALL fiction sales in Australia, so if you go with a small press, you will have a huge battle to get distribution into bookshops. If an author is not represented by one of these big nine companies, you effectively can’t get into the market.
  • Established publishers are risk-averse, so it’s very hard to find a publisher that will take the risk on a new fiction author.
  • For non-fiction, the top ten trade publishers account for 76% of the market, and for children’s books, 80% of titles come from just ten publishers. Again, distribution is the biggest issue facing new authors. Local/independent/small presses account for just 13% of Australian publishing—combined.
  • Paperbacks dominate, but hardback popularity continues to grow (21% of the market in 2003, and 27% in 2018). After the global financial crisis (i.e. after 2008), publishers reduced the prices of hardbacks.

Grant McAvaney: ‘Copyright for editorial gatekeepers’ (plenary session)

Grant took us on a very quick journey through the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (on 1 May 2019, it was 50 years since it came into force). The Act was amended substantially five years ago.

I took as many notes as I could but he covered a LOT of ground. He did say that the Copyright Council’s website ( has many free fact sheets that cover the detail of what he spoke about.

Copyright myths:

  • No, you don’t have to apply for or pay for copyright protection.
  • There is no ‘fair use’ defence in the Act, but there is a ‘fair dealing’ provision.
  • There’s no legal term for plagiarism; instead it’s ‘unauthorised use of someone else’s copyright’.
  • Generally, there’s no ‘10% rule’ (except under specific circumstances).
  • Anything on the internet is NOT public domain.

Copyright is a bundle of rights:

  • Copyright protects things that would otherwise have no protection at all: ‘works’, and ‘subject matter other than works’. ‘Works’ include literary, artistic, dramatic, and musical works; ‘other than works’ include films, sound recordings, broadcasts, published editions. Copyright does not protect ideas.
  • While those things are protected, that doesn’t mean you don’t have to acknowledge those works.
  • There’s only a copyright breach is there’s substantial use, but defining ‘substantial use’ is a very grey area. It might only be as little as the line of a poem or song. For larger works, small quotes or snippets MAY be OK. Facebook posts, Tweets, etc. are not classed as substantial works.
  • Even if larger chunks are used, the fair dealing defence may come into play (e.g. it may be OK for a review/criticism, news report, parody/satire, access for those with a disability).
  • Copyright is the starting position, but contracts trump everything (e.g. an author may have assigned it or licensed it to someone else in such a way that prevents even them using it).
  • In general, copyright lasts for the life of the creator + 70 years.
  • Broadly, if you create it, you own it. But there are exceptions.
  • The owner of the copyright (may not be the author) has exclusive rights to reproduction, communication, public performance, adaptation, publication, and broadcast of the work.
  • Ownership does NOT equal licence.
  • Attribution is not a defence to copyright, but often calms the author down.

Ask yourself:

  • What’s protected?
  • If it’s protected, is it ‘substantial use’?
  • Is there a ‘fair dealing’ defence?
  • Do I REALLY have permission? (remember, the permission may not be the author’s to give) Ask the person what copyright permission they have, and GET PERMISSION.

Moral rights:

  • are for individuals—they can’t be sold or assigned to someone else, like copyright can
  • life of the creator + 70 years
  • right of attribution
  • right against false attribution (and more that I didn’t note down).

In 2018 the Copyright Modernisation Review was started—currently on hold while the government is in caretaker mode prior to the 2019 federal election. But it’s likely they will cover fair use, extra fair dealing rules, orphan works (where you can’t find the owner after due diligence), quotations, etc.

Kevin Young, Hella Ibrahim: ‘Agents for change: The in-house /freelance editor working relationship in digital-first educational publishing’

The presenters work for Jacaranda Wiley educational publishing and talked about how they edit digital-first content.

Traditional workflow was print first then convert to digital. Switched to ‘digital first, with an initial strategy of no print. However, schools still wanted print. Content is the same no matter where/how published—printed, online ebook, online course. Online has the advantage of being able to include lots of extra resources and links to other resources.

Single-source content, so edit once for all formats.

Tools must be user friendly so editors can just focus on the content.

Freelance editors must have good traditional editing skills, plus:

  • assess user experience
  • course creation spreadsheets (I’m not sure I got that right)
  • edit interactive content elements, assessment tools, etc.

How do you tune out technology to focus on content? You don’t—embrace technology. Same skills, different format.

Where does traditional editing role end and digital start? When to use in-house editors or freelance editors?

How can tools be improved to help improve the process? Identify pain points and issues. Editors are part of the process of suggesting improvements, and are considered ‘agents of change’ (i.e. someone who promotes and enables change to happen in an organisation). How can the process or tools be improved? Editors are encouraged to be proactive. Editors can and should be agents of change in digital-first production.

Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Carr, Emma Knight: ‘Editing for print and digital in educational publishing: efficiencies, challenges, and the future’

(also with Wiley)

Manuscripts are generally fairly complete by the time they get them.

They start with a Word doc and need to keep in mind the eventual final product.

Needed to identify what in print is superfluous in an ebook. Page numbers were an obvious choice—instead, they use directional callouts (e.g. links to section/figure/table numbers).

Images in print and digital may need to be laid out/wrapped differently, plus alt text for screen readers.

Simplified design so that print and ebook look similar.

Ebook advantages:

  • can include other media (video, quizzes, etc.), but then there are other challenges (embed? Stream? What about different operating systems, devices, browsers, etc.?)
  • supports different learning styles
  • accessibility (screen readers, alt text, closed captions in video)

They use a single-source XML-based system to help deliver to the requirements, thus a shortened production time. Once the content is approved, titles can get to market quicker.

Print and digital runs are done in parallel.

Media editing includes editing scripts, storyboards, captions, etc.


  • continued growth in automation
  • what styling can be done in Word and flow through to XML etc. (e.g. non-breaking spaces)

Doro Forck: ‘CCAMLR’s approach to preparing and editing meeting reports’

CCAMLR: Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

International body set up in 1982; comprises 25 countries. All materials are produced in four languages concurrently—English, French, Spanish, and Russian.

The Secretariat supports the meetings, which are typically one to two weeks long. In 2018, there were eight meetings with more than 500 participants.

They needed a modern system for reports that fit with their website, was multilingual, only available to registered members, etc.

In 2012 they used Drupal to create their new website:

  • contains all meeting-related information
  • they have a meeting server
  • need to track status, workflow
  • need email alerts of changes
  • need version control
  • system available to all participants, and all can see new comments/changes

Rapporteurs draft meeting report text (different ones for each agenda item), and are the only people who can upload new versions.

On the final meeting day, everything comes together. All meeting reports—in all languages—are available on the last day [WOW!].

Meeting report server:

  • accommodates requirements of different user groups
  • also used for drafting legislation (??)
  • flexible, adaptable system
  • user feedback easily included
  • transferrable.

Stacey King, Rachel Westbury: ‘Editing in the modern workplace: Everything you wanted to know about using collaborative tools’

Even for a 20-minute session, ‘everything’ was always going to be a challenge. Their focus was Google Docs, which has track changes, commenting, and real-time collaboration [which can also be done in Word, BTW].

They work for the University of Queensland and have eight student guides to produce, involving 35 stakeholders.

Their old process:

  • extract and convert content from PDF into Word (I’m not sure why they stated with PDF and not the original Word docs)
  • distribute to stakeholders, compile feedback
  • mediate conflicts
  • input final changes into InDesign


  • version control
  • managing communication and mediating conflicts between stakeholders
  • enforcing deadlines

New process (with Google Docs):

  • extract and convert content from PDF into Google Docs
  • split content into separate docs and have a shared spreadsheet (Google Sheet) to manage the process
  • invite stakeholders to review in Google Docs
  • stakeholders add updates, resolve queries and conflicts among themselves (i.e. NOT involving the editors)
  • lock down permissions at the deadline (forces the final deadline)
  • edit and transfer updated changes to InDesign

This new process removed the editorial team from acting as middlemen for the conflicts.


  • anonymous comments (people forget to log in)
  • reluctant stakeholders (unwilling to try new technology)

Top tips for trialling Google Docs with a team:

  • meet with stakeholders and offer support
  • decide how will break large project into clear and logical sections
  • communicate importance of logging in before adding comments

Benefit: streamlined as administratively intensive process

Benefits of Google Docs to small (one-person) editorial business:

  • version control (only one master file)
  • transparency (version history, email notifications)
  • editing/collaborating in real time
  • clients can accept/reject changes as you’re making them, if you choose to do this
  • store and share templates (e.g. style sheets, briefing templates)
  • saves changes automatically


  • live editing = stage fright!
  • no PerfectIt (but can export to Word, run PerfectIt, and make changes in Google Docs)
  • no macros
  • potential client confusion with the process
  • not always accessible (cloud-based)

Top tips for using in your own business:

  • consider what jobs it might be suitable for
  • give clients/users clear instructions (e.g. changes save automatically, so there’s no ‘save’ button)
  • set boundaries/expectations

Rachel and Stacey made a video covering the basics of Google Docs for editors:

Justine McNamara: ‘Why is a raven like a writing desk? How our ‘other’ professions inform editing practice’

Justine has had many careers, several in the medical and allied professions, before becoming an editor. She shared the insights she gained when she looked at her careers as a whole, and how many common themes or threads emerged when she made connections that weren’t readily apparent, and how these linked with her current editing career.

Often editing is an ‘accidental’ profession with people ‘falling into it’ from another career. When she analysed the IPEd membership directory, she found about one-third of members mentioned their previous careers in their profiles (she also mentioned that it’s possible there are many more who have had other careers but DIDN’T mention them in their profiles).

Questions to consider:

  • How do your past careers tell you about your strengths, weaknesses, likes, and dislikes?
  • What knowledge/skills do you bring from earlier jobs that you can apply to editing?
  • How can you use this information to carve out a successful and enjoyable editing career?
  • How can you use this information to market yourself as an editor?

Messages for the future:

  • beware insecure employment
  • welcome technology
  • look after yourself

(Note: I did something similar several years ago, looking at how the careers I’ve had all seem to follow a pattern:

(Also, I still don’t know what the raven reference is in the title of her talk)

Penny Modra: ‘Editing in the age of content’ (plenary session)

  • In business, writing is an assumed skill and there are many ‘writing workers’.
  • All brands now publish (e.g. social media, magazines). About 20% of marketing dollars in the US are now spent on Facebook marketing. [source?]
  • Australian schools removed grammar, punctuation etc. from curricula in the 1970s, so there’s not a few generations of students who have no idea.
  • What do businesses need? Editors!

They think they need a style guide, but they really need:

  • training
  • efficiencies
  • systems
  • empowerment
  • audience advocacy
  • [and others I didn’t have time to jot down]


  • buy-in:
    • editors can bring neutral reader advocacy
    • people in charge have misconceptions: ‘We already have a style guide’ when they mean brand guidelines; ‘Our people already know how to write’ when they are unaware of the long arguments about hyphenation; ‘We have other budget priorities’ when they don’t realise that the words they show to the world ARE their reputation and the main way their customers interact them. Consistency is absolutely critical to credibility—consistency IS branding. Consistency is critical to readability
    • from the team: open the worm-cans: language changes (often resistance); grammar versus style; how style guides work
  • extent
  • examples
  • format
  • updates
  • voice and tone

[I didn’t take many notes for the rest as I found the presentation jumped here and there. However, one thing that did resonate was the capping of job titles, and how that can almost represent hierarchies of greater and lesser jobs—for example, if Chief Executive Officer is capped, are you also capping Cleaner?]

Closing ceremony

At the closing ceremony the next IPEd conference venue and dates were announced: 28 to 30 June 2021, Hobart Grand Chancellor (yes, the middle of winter in Tasmania!). Theme: ‘Editing on the edges’. Conference website:

The conference dates will be book-ended by the Dark Mofo winter festival ( and the Festival of Voices (

Finally, I observed that the plenary sessions had lots of people, and guessed the attendance to be around 300. I asked the conference organisers on the last day, and they said about 350 attended the conference, which included those who only came for a single day or for a workshop. The ACES conference over three days earlier this year had about twice that, but to put it in perspective, North America has more than ten times the population of Australia and New Zealand combined, so IPEd is punching well above its weight to get 350 attendees for a two-day Australasian conference.

See also:


IPEd Conference 2019: Day 1

May 12, 2019

Last week (8 to 10 May 2019) I attended the biennial IPEd Conference (Institute of Professional Editors, the national association of Australian [and now New Zealand] editors), held in Melbourne. These notes summarise MY experience at the conference and my opinions and represent no-one else’s experience or opinions. I took notes for many of the sessions I attended, but as there were several concurrent streams, these notes in no way reflect the full breadth of the conference sessions. NOTE: Many of the sessions were only 10 minutes long and there was limited changeover time. Some session notes may be missing if I had to leave for the next session before the current session’s presenter finished.

Opening Ceremony

Blah blah blah… Call me cynical, but I’ve attended many many conferences, and most opening ceremonies are full of thanks from the organisers, rah rah rah about how good this conference will be and how much ‘fun’ it will be, messages from the high levels of the organisations and other ‘dignitaries’. This one was no different. However, despite a lot to cover and limited time, one of the invited ‘dignitaries’ went on and on and on and on… So much so that she cribbed a lot of time from the opening speakers who actually had interesting stuff to say. I felt very sorry for these invited opening speakers—the keynote speaker (yes, the important keynote address) didn’t start until 30 minutes after her allotted start time, and was pressured to finish early. All because the blah blah blah stuff went on too long.

The two other speakers in the opening time slot were good. First up was Angela Savage on ‘Great moments in editing’, where she shared some anecdotes from several Australian authors about how their editors made them look good. Much of the stuff the authors related were where their editors had picked up issues related to fact checking and verification, such as who really was playing cricket against whom in the year the novel was set. And whether a left-hander could hit a ball into the holly bush in the backyard based on where the editor had mapped all the backyard vegetation to be. Or the fact that a certain brand of sports shoe wasn’t released into the Australian market until after the date in which the novel was set. She finished by adding that a robot editor couldn’t do that sort of work.

The Welcome Address was given by Roly Sussex, who talked about language shortening and widening. My notes:


  • Over the centuries, the time taken to write and publish has shortened from months, even years, to milliseconds.
  • Reading time has also shortened, and people tend not to read long passages of text anymore.
  • Production time has collapsed (e.g. newspapers, books), with a flow-on effect on quality.


  • Despite more than 6000 languages worldwide, there’s more of a move to English than any other language. English has become the ‘world language’ for business, commerce, and in other areas.
  • Initially, only the educated male clergy could read and write. With Caxton, literacy jumped the gender barriers, and with the 1871 Education Act in the UK, literacy was available to all. Now, anything can be published, whether it should be or not.
  • About 75% of English transactions are now carried out by those whose first language isn’t English (e.g. India, Pakistan, etc.)
  • English may have widened, but is has also weakened. Unlike French, there’s no regulatory body that decides what’s in the dictionaries, how the language is used, what words can be imported into the language etc. In the absence of a regulatory body, editors are guardians/gatekeepers of English language usage.

Other notes:

  • In public, written English, there are country/regional variations (spelling, date formats, punctuation rules etc.).
  • Australian English has three main dictionaries and three main usage guides as authorities.
  • Editors in some industries (e.g. newspapers) are in danger.
  • Be guardians of flexibility and innovation, exercise judgment.

Keynote Address

As I mentioned earlier, the keynote address started 30 minutes late and therefore the (invited) speaker had to finish much earlier than she would have expected. This was really unfair to both her and the delegates and I’d have been furious had it been me.

The keynote speaker was Susan Butler, a previous editor of the Macquarie Dictionary. Her topic was ‘When to care and when not to care: The editor’s angst’. The premise of her talk was based on words that are often confused, and which ones we should take note of and stand firm on, and which ones may well be becoming acceptable terms. Her pet peeve was using ‘infamous’ instead of ‘famous’. Common usage errors are often caused by confusion and proliferated in social media and the like (e.g. alternate/alternative, toll/toil, endure/endear, ensure/ensue, etc.). We need to make sure we respect the author’s wishes, but also need to advise authors if we think they are making an error, and thus aim to protect the author from ridicule. Confused words affect clarity.

She also said she’s in favour of killing off the apostrophe as it’s so often misused in plurals. However, she thinks she’s a lone voice on this and doesn’t think that will happen any time soon.

When new words were introduced to Macquarie, she said they always got the pedants riled who sent in letters stating ‘I’ve never heard that word in my life’ [and therefore it can’t be a real word]. She emphasised that old dictionaries and style guides are NOT an authority [and I’ll add that your 5th grade teacher isn’t an authority either!]. Similarly, not every word in use has to be in the dictionary to be a legitimate word.

By the way, she said that ‘a wigwam for a goose’s bridle’ [a common Australian expression that I remember hearing often when I was a kid], was derived from ‘a whim-wham for a goose’s bridle’ (a whim-wham is a trinket).


After the opening session and keynote address, we broke for a yummy morning tea. There were some nice savoury items as well as sweet, a pleasant change from many conferences were there are only sweet items. But still no soft drinks or juices to cater for those who don’t drink tea or coffee. We always have to buy these ourselves, which always seems unfair when the tea and coffee drinkers get all their drinks (and as many as they can imbibe) included in the conference fee.


Next up were the main conference sessions. There were three streams running concurrently over 90 minutes, and 14 sessions to choose from. Most sessions were about 10 minutes long (an incredibly short time for a conference presentation!) with a 5-minute changeover. You could stay in the one room for the whole stream or chop and change according to your interests. For this first concurrent session, I went to five different presentations across two streams, going from Ballroom 3 to 1 to 3 to 1 to 3 again. As a result of the changeover and the fact that nearly every speaker went over time, I missed the ends of many presentations. Also, each speaker was introduced by a host, and many gave their own Welcome to Country message, thus adding an extra two minutes to most time slots and reducing to eight minutes the available time to get their message across. It was always going to be interesting…. My notes are NOT complete—in some rooms, I had to stand at the back and thus couldn’t take notes easily, but mostly I had to leave before the presenter finished. Many of these presentations were understandably rushed and the speakers could not get through all the content on their slides, or even all their slides. Or they went over time. Or all the above.

Pam Hewitt: ‘For love and money’

Pam has done studies of salaries and hourly rates for editors over time and shared some of her findings with us. In the past few decades, editors’ salaries have decreased in real terms (i/e after taking inflation, CPI, average minimum wage etc. in to account), and are now less than the average weekly earnings. For freelancers, the average hourly rate in 2001 was $50, and by 2016 was $60, which doesn’t even cover inflation; taking inflation into account, it should have been $74/hr by 2016.

She also mentioned contributing factors such as:

  • the wage gap by gender (editing is a predominantly female profession, and thus attracts lower salaries; even within evenly gendered industries, women are paid only 77% the salary that a man gets for the same job)
  • globalisation: in-house editors are an endangered species. Clients now have access to editors around the country and around the world; equally freelancers can work with clients around the country and the world, so there are possibly more opportunities for work, though not necessarily at a liveable hourly rate
  • treating editing as a second income or post-retirement income, with the editor not being the main breadwinner, or doing editing as a ‘hobby’. One of the associated issues is the lack of superannuation for women in general, and for editors who don’t work sufficient hours to put away enough Super. Pam suggested including an amount to cover Super in your hourly rate.

Other things for freelancers to consider when setting rates include overheads (advertising, insurances, professional development/education, phone/ISP, maintenance, professional memberships, non-billable hours, office supplies, professional library, accountancy fees, utilities, health, holidays, Superannuation).

She also stated that being transparent with others about your salary/hourly rate can only help the everyone in the profession. IPEd is considering setting baseline rates so that clients know what to expect [I think that’s what she said, but I’m not 100% sure as I had to leave about then].

David Zmood: ‘Scientific and technical editing for the non-specialist editor’

David advised us to focus on what we’re good at—language, and how the information is being conveyed to the reader. Polish the language. ‘Let the researchers research, and the editors edit.’

Look at the document type—different ones have different requirements.

Look at the writing style—passive, or first person/active (which is easier to read and becoming more acceptable)

Is the language clear, consistent, and precise? Remove ambiguity; check jargon, abbreviations, acronyms; check the structure; are units of measure used consistently throughout; when decimals are used, are they to the same level for each value (e.g. 3 versus 3.25, which should be 3.00 and 3.25)?

Check figures, tables, and charts. Watch for duplication of the information in the fig etc. in the main body of the text (don’t make the reader re-read the information). Do figs etc. have a clear purpose, are they introduced in the text, and are they in the right location (i.e. near where they are introduced)? Are they readable and accessible? Avoid 3D charts, colours and patterns that aren’t visible/readable in greyscale, and be aware of other vision impairment issues of potential reader.

Karen Farrar: ‘5 Ws of advocacy – lessons for editors from other professions’

Karen had a varied career in the medical sciences before becoming an editor. She has been a member of many professional bodies and thus can see the commonalities between them and the editing profession. First she defined professional advocacy as ‘raising awareness to achieve change’.


  • who are you (as an organisation)?
  • who do you represent?
  • who is your target audience for advocacy?
  • who should be involved?


  • what do you want?
  • what are your key messages?


  • when you’re invited to contribute
  • when opportunity knocks
  • whenever you can make connections (e.g. current events)
  • when you can make your own news (e.g. awards publicity)
  • should be done constantly


  • professional bodies, such as governments, industry meetings and publications, website, social media
  • individuals: educate clients, educate friends and family (they often have no idea what you do)

[I had to leave this session before it finished)

Joely Taylor and Katharine O’Moore-Klopf (via video link from the US): ‘Purging plagiarism: Why authors plagiarise and how to fix it’

[When I arrived at this session, it was standing room only, so I didn’t take notes. The staff brought in extra chairs, so I started to take notes when Katharine started her section of the presentation]

Types of plagiarism:

  • self-plagiarism: re-using your own material that’s been published elsewhere and passing it off as new material; entwined with copyright and research and publication ethics; data augmentation; double dipping
  • patch writing: patching together different parts of words/sentences/paragraphs from the works cited and passing off as your own; unsuccessful paraphrasing; possibly a learning stage
  • copy/paste writing: copied from original works with little/no attempt at paraphrasing; done without attribution.

Finding plagiarism:

  • Look for suspicious text and ask questions about it: changes in language style, syntax, grammar, length of words and sentences; font changes, text background colours.
  • Check Adrienne Montgomerie’s ’10 signs of “lifted” text’:
  • Plenty of plagiarism detection software available—some free, some not.

Bobby Graham: ‘Blogging for your business’

Bobby updated us on her story so far—it seems at the last conference she’d just embarked on blogging (a niche market blog for those wanting to travel light). She said to date her plans and dreams hadn’t come to fruition and she’d made no money, so she was changing tack.

There are four pillars that sustain a blog/website: technology, design, content, and governance.

  • Technology/design: She recommended all-in-one solutions like SquareSpace (, which is a blogging platform with things such as e-commerce, predesigned templates, etc.
  • Content: This is where writers/editors shine. Consider tools such as CoSchedule headline analyser for coming up with alternative headlines to the one you’ve written that are better for search engine optimisation (
  • Governance: Have a content calendar for your blog posts

Blogging is a lonely business, so perhaps consult with a content strategist to help keep you on track.

Consider guest blog posts—you being the guest on others’ blogs, and they being a guest blogger on yours.

Look at your target market and consider how you can get noticed where they hang out (e.g. she targets female travellers over a certain age [e.g.]). Narrow down your target market—she made the mistake of thinking she would target all travellers, but no is more focused on a particular demographic.


Lunch was held in the Cliveden restaurant in the hotel and was a delicious buffet lunch, with a good range of hot dishes and salads, and dessert. Much better than in Brisbane when I think we stood around juggling plates of food and trying to talk and eat while standing up. This time we sat at tables of 4 to 6 people, which was much more civilised and much easier to talk with others.


After lunch, the three streams had a combined 11 sessions over 90 minutes. I didn’t move around so much this time—my first two sessions were in the same room, with the next two also in the same room (though a different room to the first!).

Panel: ‘Academic Editing’ (chaired by Susan Keogh, with panellists Sharon Lierse and Robyn Williams)

The PhD process:

  • Typically three years
  • Student has to write a 10,000-word confirmation of candidature, and an ethics application within the first few months. At this point the supervisor gets a clear idea of their writing skills. Supervisor must sign off on both these submissions.
  • Dissertation may be 80,000 words and is usually supervised by up to three people.

Dilemma: How to convince students to pay for a professional accredited editing services as versus the ‘We’ll edit your thesis in 24 hours for $250’ signs rampant around uni campuses.

IPEd has clear guidelines for editing theses (updated earlier in 2019 and available from the IPEd website: They list what editors can and can’t do (e.g. no substantive editing). Essential to make students aware of their responsibilities and that of their editor. There’s a grey area between copy and substantive editing of theses, and sometimes questions of clarification need to go back to the supervisor. Supervisors are more hands-on with the student’s work.

Who pays for the editing? Students often can’t afford the cost. Sometimes the uni pays up to a certain amount. If the uni is paying, then need to involve the supervisor. Some students can afford to pay for editing, but many can’t—does this lead to inequality? Not all unis have editorial support—many are cash-strapped and don’t offer this.

However, once a student has attained their PhD, any editing after that can involve the whole range, including substantive as they are no longer subject to the same rules. The chair asked the panel if this was fair.

If a student’s English is poor, where are the boundaries? Editors need to flag issues, not rewrite (e.g. comment, perhaps with a link to someone like Grammar Girl who discusses the issue). Editors must stay at arm’s length. Typical writing issues for ESL students include: subject/verb agreement, length of sentences/paragraphs, plurals.

At one point, editors weren’t ever involved in PhD theses, but now are getting involved in Masters and sometimes undergrad work. Will editors eventually be asked to edit year 12 assignments? Up to schools to teach students how to write, but often grammar etc. not taught. Should Ed Depts give a blanket statement to schools about the use of editing with students? Is it already happening with some tutoring services? In some private schools? ‘Editors for everyone’?

Universities should have clear policies as to when/if students should engage an editor. Not all do. Role for IPEd?

Editing mills: Very cheap/free. The uneducated consumer doesn’t know the difference between a professional editor and someone who hangs up a shingle and calls themselves an editor. This affects everyone in regards to credibility, wages/rates.

Academic authors want better quality, in a shorter time, and cheaper! (i.e. all three on the ‘pick two’ continuum).

University/scholarly presses: Many are abandoning scholarly publishing (very expensive). Is there a space for indie publishing for academic authors? Uni presses need to maintain high standards to keep their reputations. Some now want authors to pay—self-publishing/vanity model? But do these works go out for peer review? Academics are unlikely to self-publish because their prestige depends on being published by reputable presses.

Cooperation with unis is vital. It can’t just be editors holding up the guidelines—it needs a joint approach from the unis too.

Pam Peters: ‘Best practice for editing – all at one URL’

Pam gave an overview of the upcoming collaborative ‘StyleHub’ portal (; due for launch mid-2019) that is a joint exercise between Macquarie Dictionary and BioText, and will bring together in one place the many resources that editors need, such as:

  • style manual (not sure which one this is, but later she talked about the Australian Manual of Scientific Style [AMOSS] being made more general and being called the Australian Manual of Style [AMOS])
  • Australian style (not sure what this is in comparison to the first one)
  • term finders
  • clear communication
  • research and testing
  • training.

[I had to leave before she finished, and have no idea how much this portal website will cost to access]

Julie Irish: ‘Accessibility: Creating content for everyone’

More than 4 million Australians at any one time have a disability, be it permanent or temporary (e.g. broken arm):

  • accessibility is a requirement for all federal government websites
  • best practice for web design/development
  • available to the broadest possible audience

Other impairments:

  • English is not the first language
  • situational impairments, such as trying to watch a video on a phone with no headphones

Accessible content:

  • clear/logical structure (headings essential)
  • inclusive language
  • good readability (check with Hemingway app)
  • [I missed a few here…]
  • alt text, captions, transcripts
  • link text
  • microcopy (e.g. button text)
  • writing to suit user’s purposes,

Accessibility is for everyone. There’s no such thing as ‘normal’.

Cathy Nicholl: ‘Making the accessible usable when editing for the online world’

Content needs to be useful to visual, audio, and kinaesthetic learners—must cater for different learning styles as well as different abilities.
Accessible, usable, multichannel.

Close of day keynote: Michael Williams, Director, The Wheeler Centre for Books, Writing and Ideas

Michael was a humorous speaker, who made a potentially dry subject very entertaining (governments have an ‘edifice complex’, a need to build something new even though it might already exist in another form).

The Wheeler Centre ( was established by the Victorian Government after Melbourne became the second UNESCO City of Literature. It brings together in the one place several Victorian and Melbourne organisations associated with publishing, books, writing, comedy etc. They have an extensive talks program (about 250 a year, of which 80% are free to attend), and mentor new writers. By making talks free, there’s a greater chance people will spend that money saved buying the books etc. after the talk. And by starting them at 6:15pm, they get workers before they go home but after they’ve finished work for the day, and still have them back on the train by 7:00pm.

It’s a centre for public conversations that have been abandoned over the years by institutions of old—churches, railway and mechanics institutes, trade unions, local government, etc.

Their eclectic programs cater to multiple tribes. They host local writers and those who are visiting Melbourne.

However, they aren’t just an events organisation—they also help fill gaps in Australian publishing. They are concerned with how well supported the next generation of writers will be. Traditional publishing is typically very risk-averse, so new writers—no matter how good they are—may never get published. They offer a voice to those in the margins, those less privileged. Publishing is connecting an idea with an audience.

The proliferation of small publishers don’t have the resources to work with audiences and promote new writers. So The wheeler Centre, in partnership with Aesop Cosmetics Foundation, have established ‘The Next Chapter’, a mentoring program for ten new writers. Each person chosen gets $15,000, is assigned a mentor, and signs a moratorium contract to NOT go to a publisher. Their job is to hone their craft and make it the best it can possibly be, even if it never gets published. At the end of the 12 months, The Wheeler Centre will act as their agent to help them get published.

Close of day Panel: ‘Things I wish I’d known’

In this plenary session Renee Otmar asked six experienced editors for their take on what they learnt the hard way, or what they wish they’d known early in their editing careers. The panellists were: Ted Briggs, Edward Caruso, Ruth Davies, Loene Doube, Kirsten Rawlings, and Kathie Stove. This was a light-hearted finish to the end of Day 1.


The Gala Dinner was held this evening, but I didn’t attend. There’s something about ‘fancy dress’ that turns me right off any event that has a dress-up theme!

See also:


IPEd Conference 2019: Workshop day

May 12, 2019

Last week (8 to 10 May 2019) I attended the biennial IPEd Conference (Institute of Professional Editors, the national association of Australian [and now New Zealand] editors), held in Melbourne at the Pullman on the Park hotel. These notes summarise MY experience at the conference and my opinions and represent no-one else’s experience or opinions. 

IPEd held several half-day pre-conference workshops the day before the conference started, for an extra cost of $175 per workshop. I attended ‘Mastering Macros: Understanding the full potential of Word’, presented by Kevin O’Brien.

I was familiar with much of what Kevin had to say, but I did learn a couple of new things. He covered the basics of macros very comprehensively, then got us to record our own macro, assign macros to keyboard shortcuts, modify a macro in the VBA window (e.g. add a loop command), and helped us debug a failing macro. The sample template he provided has many macros, some of which I may add to my suite of useful macros once I’ve had time to test them out.


The first official event of the conference was the Welcome Reception, held after all the workshops were finished. The catering staff were very good in providing drinks, but it did take a while for the food to come out to soak up the alcohol. However, when it did it was excellent finger food—hot, small enough to eat in one or perhaps two bites, with a lot of variety. I only stayed for about an hour (it got very noisy, with a couple of hundred delegates all chatting) and then headed back to my nearby hotel (I didn’t stay at the conference venue).

See also:


ACES Conference 2019: Providence, Rhode Island

April 1, 2019

I’ve just finished attending the ACES Conference in Providence (ACES was previously known as the American Copy Editors Association; now it’s ACES: The Society for Editors). This was my fifth ACES conference and it was the biggest yet. The 2018 record of 710 attendees in Chicago was broken with an increase of 16%, taking the registered attendees in 2019 to 827!

The conference was held at the Omni Providence Hotel, on the edge of downtown Providence and right next door to the convention centre. The rooms were standard hotel rooms for a hotel of this star rating, so nothing much to say about those. The lobby was easy to find as were the conference rooms (unlike in Chicago in 2018). And the conference rooms were set up well for a conference of this nature—the audio worked well, the presentations were projected on the screens without any glitches, and there were no impediments to seeing the presenters (except for the panel discussions where the participants were seated at a table at floor level, not on a dais).

The program was extensive, and the sessions I attended were excellent. Between five and eight concurrent sessions were scheduled for each time slot (typically seven or eight), so it was impossible to go to them all. There was a 30-minute break between sessions, with a long lunch break, which gave you enough time to visit the bathroom, grab a coffee, check out the vendor booths, and get to your next session. As a presenter, that 30 minutes was perfect for making sure the previous presenter had vacated the room, and give you unpressured time to set up for your session.

All the comments and notes below are my own and do not represent anybody else. Naturally, I only reported on the sessions I attended.

Freelancers Happy Hour

This was held the evening before the conference started and was not an official ACES event. It was sponsored by some small copyediting businesses and was held at a bar a couple of blocks from the hotel. The food was good (free food, cash bar), the company was good, and the room was LOUD. I left after about an hour because I thought I’d lose my voice trying to maintain a conversation at that noise level, and with my presentation scheduled for early the next day I wasn’t going to jeopardise my voice. Unfortunately, this year the Freelancers Happy Hour clashed with the ACES Spelling Bee, which was on at the same time. In previous years, the spelling bee has been held on another night, and not at the same time as the freelancers’ thing, so I’m sure many people were torn as to which one they’d go to.

Day 1

After the opening session, the first sessions of the conference started. My 10:30am session on Microsoft Word clashed with another session I really wanted to go to (Samantha Enslen’s session on editing for readability, which I missed last year because of the lack of microphone in a big room), but as I was speaking at the same time, it was impossible to attend hers. This year, the session times were cut to 60 minutes (from 90 and then 75 minutes in previous years), so I had to move through my material at a fair clip and had to take out all demonstrations (bar one) from my presentation so that I could cover everything in the time allotted. I also included Mac information for each tip for the first time. In previous years, the audience for this session has hovered around 150 people, but was only about 80 people this year. But then, it’s the fourth consecutive year I’ve done the same session! The response from attendees immediately after the session and in the following days was all very positive. And many attendees from previous years came up to thank me for making their lives easier, including one chap from a military university, who said he’s shared my tips and handouts with thousands of students and faculty.

Lunch on the first day was the Peer Networking Lunch, and I sat at one of the Corporate Editors tables. I quite like the idea of these lunches as you get to meet other editors you may not meet otherwise, but why-oh-why do they have to seat us at such big tables? It’s impossible to talk to 10 or 12 people across a large round table, even if there wasn’t a lot of other noise coming from the other tables. You end up only talking to those next to you, or perhaps one further away on each side, and thus pretty much ignore the rest of those at the table because you can’t hear or be heard. Tables of four to six people would be much better because you’d get a chance to introduce yourself and talk to everyone at the table, and thus not feel as though you’ve excluded those you can’t hear.

After lunch I attended the ‘Maximize your time: Growth and balance for your freelance editorial biz’ co-presented by Julie Willson and Melanie Padget Powers. Most of what they had to say and the advice they gave wasn’t new to me, but it was revealing and scary to see how much time in a 24-hour day I spend on various activities. My aim? To cut down the amount of time spent on social media and watching TV, and spend more time on hobbies and creative pursuits. I’ll see how that goes… Some other insights from their session included:

  • Focus on peak productivity times (are you a morning or a night person?)
  • Create routines/habits to maximise your energy peaks and troughs
  • Simplify your systems
  • What are your pre-work routines? What do you do first? Is there a better/more efficient way or time to do those tasks? (e.g. don’t deal with non-urgent emails etc. in your peak productivity times—leave until you are less sharp)
  • Habit formation: Create a ‘today’ list of 3 to 4 items only; create a highlight for the day; create a random questions list; make it convenient; reward yourself
  • Go to to find out which sort of tendency (Upholder, Questioner, Obliger, or Rebel) you best match

The last session of the day was Sea Chapman’s ‘Raging silence: Confronting death in the written word’. This wasn’t my first choice for that time slot, but I’d had breakfast with Sea and a couple of others that morning, and her presentation sounded fascinating. And so it was. Unlike journalists who may have to report on deaths (natural, murder, suicide, violent deaths, terror acts, obituaries, etc.), my only exposure to death in the documents I work on relates to euthanising animals that are injured as a result of work activities (e.g. struck by a vehicle). Sea took us through an overview of how death is seen in different countries, religions, and cultures; the rituals involved in death and the disposal of the body; the ethics of writing about death and a dead person; terms used to describe suicide (‘took their own life’ or ‘died by suicide’ are preferred to ‘committed suicide’, which survivors may find offensive or harmful or imply criminality); the various euphemisms and metaphors used to describe death—and how to avoid them; focusing on the victims and survivors after a tragedy and not giving power or publicity to the perpetrator; etc. She also provided us with an extensive handout of resources, including an excellent set of guidelines at:

The Opening Night Reception (food included, cash bar) was well attended and another loud event (well, nearly 800 people in a room will create a lot of noise, even if many of them are self-confessed introverts—they’re not so introverted when they are with their tribe!). One of the highlights was the availability of heaps of word board games around the room and on small tables! This was a brilliant idea and should be standard at all conferences for writers, editors, and others involved in words. It allowed us to meet others in a way that avoided the social chitchat and small talk that is painful to so many people at an event like this. Getting to know someone over a board game certainly beats standing around waiting to join in the conversation with a group of people you don’t know.

Day 2

My sessions today started with Lisa McLendon’s ‘Small changes, big difference’ where she focused on the little things we can do to eliminate excessive and awkward wording, making the copy smoother, clearer, and more concise, and making sentences stronger and more direct. She showed lots of examples, and explained why and how they could be revised. For example:

  • There were thousands of screaming fans packing the arena. ==>Thousands of screaming fans packed the arena.
  • The restaurant offers seven different vegetarian entrees. ==> The restaurant offers seven vegetarian entrees. (‘different’ is redundant—they wouldn’t offer seven entrees the same!)
  • Estimated to be about 50,000 years old, the Yukon Paleontology program thinks the specimens are the oldest mummified mammal tissue ever discovered. ==> The Yukon Paleontology program thinks the specimens, estimated to be 50,000 years old, are the oldest mummified mammal tissues ever discovered. (example of misplaced modifier)

Her general advice was to use your judgement, be mindful of who the audience is, find the true subject of the sentence, and never give the reader an excuse to stop reading.

Next up was a difficult choice—do I go to the one on creativity, or to James Harbeck’s session? That decision was made for me when I arrived at the room for the creativity session about 10 mins early to find the room packed and people spilling onto the floor and into the hallway. So off I went to James Harbeck’s ‘When to use bad English’ session. James was quick to point out that bad does not always equal inappropriate. The essence is to make sure that the text produces the right effect in the intended audience, which means you have to know your audience. Other advice included:

  • Look for the SQ (snicker quotient) of the words you use
  • The passive voice is not always a grammatical error
  • Beware of dog whistles—things that only the picky set will notice (again, know your audience). Use dog whistles to whistle up the right dogs, not the wrong ones
  • Know your genres and registers (e.g. instruction manual versus a novel)
  • Know whether the material is involved (spoken, spontaneous, personal) or if it is informational (e.g. more formal, such as government documents, reports).

Use ‘bad English’:

  • To set the tone (we choose our registers according to the situation—you speak differently to a close friend than a government official, for example)
  • To get attention, such as in marketing slogans (e.g. Kmart’s ‘Ship my pants’; ‘Got milk?’)
  • To preserve the sound (e.g. ‘to boldly go’ just doesn’t sound as emphatic as ‘to go boldly’). Grammar is not a moral code handed down on stone tablets—use language that the audience is comfortable with. Ideas about ‘correct English’ are often about class
  • To be like normal folks. Stilted language may bring back bad memories of English classes at school. Slight imperfections can be inviting. If there are no errors in, say, a restaurant’s menu, then the company has likely been able to afford an editor. Too-perfect English can be uninviting in some contexts
  • To be believable. Sometimes a redundancy stresses the importance (e.g. ‘free gift’)
  • To be clear, and for usability (e.g. spelled out numbers may get lost in the copy)
  • To give some people something to pick at (e.g. typos in a dissertation) and thus possibly overlook or skip more important errors
  • As a red herring (e.g. politicians—people may think you’re stupid even if you’re not). People will give more credit to honesty than to perfect English
  • For shits and giggles (e.g. ‘I can haz cheezburgr’). Vulgarity can be very effective
  • For a slap in the face; however, too much erodes the effect
  • For the well-placed vulgarity. Vulgarities connect with the limbic system, so play for contrast. Also, vulgarity is an ‘in group’ thing
  • To get friends and readers (e.g. the F bomb under certain circumstances)
  • If you’re sure you can get away with it.

The first session after lunch was Laura Poole’s ‘Be bold! Making your own opportunities’. My notes from her session included:

  • Your business is only open when your mouth is
  • Freelancing—the dream is free, but the hustle is sold separately
  • Bold does not equal rude
  • Think in terms of approaching potential clients with ‘How could I help your business? Could we be referral partners?’
  • If approaching a successful freelancer for tips, try ‘Can I buy you a meal / pay your consulting rate for an hour of your time?’
  • Rate setting stages:
    1. They’ll chose me if I’m cheaper
    2. What does everyone else charge?
    3. I’ve been doing this a while
    4. What’s it really worth
    5. If you want me, this is what it costs
  • Ask for referrals, recommendations, work. Consider a signature line or line on your invoice such as ‘A referral is the greatest compliment I can receive’. Ask for LinkedIn recommendations, testimonials for your website, etc.
  • Up-sell other services you offer—‘I can also help you with …’ (perhaps also add to sig line or invoice?)
  • Bold offer—‘I can also give this presentation to any group’, then negotiate the details of expenses, travel etc.
  • Say NO to projects that drain you, heavy deadline jobs
  • Look for speaking opportunities (e.g. with clients, potential clients, chapter meetings of professional organisations, etc.). Seriously consider joining Remember, the audience WANTS you to succeed
  • Colleagues are potential referral partners (work colleagues, or editing conference colleagues)
  • Create your own training/workshops from speaking opportunities
  • Split a workshop into several webinar parts, promote and sell via website
  • Remember, ‘done’ is better than ‘perfect’
  • Be honest when you don’t know the answer
  • Write articles, blog posts, ebooks, workbooks for workshop, swap blog posts with others.

The final session of the day was just a single offering—the ‘Style guide superjam, or is it super jam?’ with hosts and panellists from Merriam-Webster, AP Stylebook, Buzzfeed, Chicago Manual of Style, Random House, and the New York Times. Each spoke about how they approach their roles and their style rules. As expected, the very large room was packed, and they had to open another room and provide a video feed to that room. Because I don’t use any of those style guides and thus don’t get all ‘fangirl’ over the names of those who were on the panel, I didn’t get a lot out of this session.

The Friday Night Banquet was held this evening, and the guest speaker was from well outside the editing world—Rupal Patel, founder and CEO of VocaliD (, a company that creates human voices for those who can’t speak, and who uses the voices of real people to create composite AI voices that sound human, not like they were generated from a computer. What she had to say and demonstrated was fascinating, and I can see applications for her work in all sorts of areas, not just in assistive technologies for those who can’t speak.

Day 3

The final day. First up for me was Daniel Heuman’s session on PerfectIt: ‘How to check consistency and enforce your house style: Using Perfectit for faster and better results’. I’ve been using PerfectIt since 2010, and just love it. It’s the only Word add-in I’d never be without. Daniel covered some of the basics for those who are new to PerfectIt or just considering purchasing it, and some more advanced stuff for seasoned practitioners. He demonstrated the features using PerfectIt 4 (currently being beta tested, with an expected release date at the end of June 2019). With regards to versions, PerfectIt 3 and 4 are for installation on a PC, while PerfectIt Cloud is for Mac. PerfectIt Cloud doesn’t yet have the customisation functions, but no doubt they will eventually make it into that version. Licensing has changed, and all new purchases will be on the $70/year subscription model ($49 for ACES members via the ACES website), whether they are for the installed or cloud versions. Updates will be automatically included in the subscription price, though you can choose when to install them (at least for PerfectIt 4—I’m not sure about the cloud version). In discussions with Daniel, he also said that a single-user license can be installed on a PC and a laptop, and still be classed as a single user. Some other notes from this session:

  • Preview window can be widened
  • Fix option is available right in line with each item found
  • Can purchase from, via the Microsoft Store option in Word (not sure if this applies to Macs too), or for a discounted price via the members’ section of the ACES website
  • F6 will put PerfectIt into keyboard mode
  • From Office 2013 onwards, you can import a PDF into Word and then check it with PerfectIt
  • Daniel highly recommends Jack Lyon’s Wildcard Cookbook (

My next session was Aleksandra Sandstrom’s ‘Working with survey data: Best practices for editors and fact checkers’. Even though this session was aimed more at those working in newspapers etc., and focused on human surveys, much still applied to any sort of survey data. My notes:

  • Is the survey trustworthy? (often subjective)
  • Is it representative?
  • Who paid for it to be done?
  • Why was it conducted?
  • Is there a method statement? (critical)

Regarding the methodology:

  • Who conducted the survey?
  • Who paid for it?
  • When was it conducted? (dates are very important in surveys of current event issues)
  • What data collection method was used? Common types of sampling include probability (everyone has a known chance of inclusion) versus non probability (quota samples [e.g. we’ve already asked xx women and now we don’t want any more], convenience samples [e.g. people who are willing and available in a particular place]). Modes of collection include phone, online, mobile (text), post, face-to-face, and a mix of these.
  • Who was NOT surveyed? (e.g. can’t reach [such as homeless]; can’t consent [such as institutionalised, or under 18])
  • What is the margin of error? (e.g. +/- 5) As the sample size increases, the margin of error decreases. Confidence interval is related to the margin of error. Watch for differences over years when you take into account the margin of error. ‘Majority’ only applies if both ends of the confidence interval is >50%. Watch for different subgroups of the sample having different margins of error (e.g. 18 to 24 year olds versus over 65s).
  • What is the weighting? Weighting typically accounts for demographic characteristics, type of person most likely to complete the survey, special considerations (e.g. language used). Can a small sample really represent the entire population? (she used the analogy of making soup, where a small taste can represent the flavour of the entire pot—you don’t have to eat all the soup to know that the sample was correct; recommends watching Methods 101: Random Sampling on YouTube:
  • How are the questions worded? Types of ‘bad’ questions include double-barrelled questions, leading questions, and questions that don’t make sense.

Common mistakes and how to avoid them:

  • Defining the universe— clearly define the group you’re talking about
  • Is it a median (middle value of a set) or a mean (average value)? The median can mitigate the effects of a wild outlier value
  • Prevalence versus intensity—you may need to ask follow-up questions to help define and narrow the responses
  • Confusing numbers with % share.

The final session of the conference I attended (not including the closing session) was on ‘Understanding your freelance pricing feedback loop’ presented by Jake Poiner and Erin Brenner. Their blurb for this session started with ‘Do I charge enough? How many more clients to I need to make the money I want?’ Their basic premise is that you can’t determine either of these things without data. My notes from this session:

  • Potential new client:
    • Collect data
    • Analyse data
    • Implement changes based on that analysis
    • Assess the project parameters
    • Present the estimate—Yes? Complete the project; No? No deal
  • When formulating rates, can use:
    • Expense/profit calculations
    • Equivalent salary calculations
    • Rate sheets
    • Other resources
  • Know how an hourly rate translates to a per page/per word rate (standard is 250 words per page, no matter how many words are actually on each page)
  • Talk to graphic designers—they are often users of editing services and can give an idea of what they expect to pay
  • Pricing for persuasion:
    • Understand the client’s needs/motivations
    • How are you conveying value? What will the client make from the work you do for them?
    • What’s the best kind of deal? The one that makes you and the client happy!
    • Do you have different pricing models for different clients? (e.g. large corporate versus a non-profit you care about) This is NOT the same as having different prices for different activities for the same client
    • Be perceived as a fair business person
    • Understand what the client expects
    • What’s the worst that can happen? (typically a job at a price that doesn’t make you happy; you still have to do the job, but you’re not getting what you should for it)
    • Get feedback—if you don’t know, ask
  • Prices, estimates, your business in general shouldn’t be static
  • How to use business data:
    • Collect data (e.g. editing speed; even if you’re not charging by the hour, you are selling hours)
    • Analyse data
    • Implement changes based on the data
  • How do I make more money and work fewer hours? You need DATA
  • Client types: Categorise clients based on value to you (bread-and-butter: you can count on them for regular work; blue-chip: you’ll do anything for them; cattle call: you’re competing with other editors on price alone; one-offs; Halley’s Comet: they like you but they don’t come around very often; passion projects: may not pay off right away but will eventually)
  • Analyse where your income is coming from—which clients? look for patterns in your business of receipts and expenditure
  • How to increase your rate: ‘On <date>, my rate will be $xx.’ Don’t apologise. Grandfathering: ‘I’ll charge you at the old rate for xx time, but the rate will increase to $xx on <date>.’ Alternative: ‘My new rate from <date> will be $xx, so get in now for me to do your work at the old rate’
  • Focus on the benefits to them (the client)
  • You need pitch data. What’s your pitch? What’s your proposal process? You need pitch data to track the source of the request (Where did they come from? How did they find you? Who referred them to you?)
  • Spend time in the places where you’ll get more projects
  • Wins and losses—ask why you didn’t get the job/contract, or why you did. Repeat the things that work
  • Record project details
  • Record response time
  • Calculate estimated editing speed (based on previous data), time, and cost
  • Record actual editing speed, time, and cost
  • Data needs a purpose—focus on your goals and collect the data, analyse the data, and implement changes
  • Be curious about your business—ask yourself what worked and why and what didn’t and why not
  • Remember, corporations expect to pay you at a consultant’s rate, not at editorial rates
  • Make sure you have a clause in your contract to cover scope creep: ‘Work outside the scope will be charged at $XX/hour’
  • Send your contract with your estimate

At the closing session, the dates and locations for future ACES conferences were announced:

  • 2020 Salt Lake City, 30 April to 2 May [CANCELLED owing to COVID-19 pandemic]
  • 2021 Atlanta, 22 to 24 April
  • 2022 San Antonio, 31 March to 2 April
  • 2023 Columbus, 23 to 25 March

And then it was all over. People packed up their gear, said their (occasionally teary) goodbyes, and headed home to their normal lives, hoping to do it all again in 2020 with those who ‘get’ them.


Spellcheck is useless against real words with different meanings

February 1, 2019

An example of where spellcheck is useless, and where you need human eyes to check your work before it goes out. I received a letter today from an Australia-wide company that conducts hearing checks. At the bottom of the letter was this set of boxes. I spotted two major errors straight away that spellcheck wouldn’t pick up (and no, one of them wasn’t ‘tick’ — Australians use ‘tick’ more than ‘check’ when referring to boxes, though a ‘the’ wouldn’t have gone astray in that instruction).

The errors I picked up were ‘everyday’ instead of ‘every day’, and ‘know’ instead of ‘no’. Neither instance would have been flagged by spellcheck. The message here — get someone else to check your work before it goes out to a national audience!


Featured in the ACES blog

January 8, 2019

I wrote a guest post for the ACES blog, which was published at the end of 2018. It’s a brief summary of my conference presentation on being more efficient with Microsoft Word. You can read it here:


Editing: It saves your readers’ sanity

December 1, 2018

Bottom line: Even something as simple as a birthday invitation can benefit from editing!

A client and I have recently been discussing academic journal writing and lamenting why it’s so stilted, wordy, written in the third person, and generally hard for an audience (especially a general audience) to understand. Our email discussion was triggered by an article in The Atlantic: The myth of dumbing down.

A few days later he shared with me a birthday invitation he’d received from an academic he knew. It was some 950 words long! While it mostly used plain conversational language (there was at least one ‘therein’…), it was way too wordy. The essentials of the message were lost or well hidden in the word salad.

I couldn’t help myself—I edited it down to 250 words and sent it back to my client, purely as an example of how editing could keep the message but communicate it in clear, plain language.

Below is the original version (with all personal and place names changed) and my edited version. The original also included the names of those who were attending and those who’d put in their apologies, which I deleted from both versions.

Original version (950 words)

Dear Family and Friends,

This email will communicate (hopefully final) details regarding the re-scheduled 50th-birthday dinner-party for me at Gurpreet’s Indian Restaurant at 280 Highline St., Anytown, on Saturday 1st December.

VENUE: I realise that some of you have eaten at Gurpreet’s Anytown restaurant in the past and so will know how to find it. But for those of you who need instructions about its location I detail them in the following section. The restaurant is on the south side of Highline Street (= Main street of Anytown and Rosella) and is just two-shops east (i.e., towards the Melbourne CBD) of what used to be the Main Town Hotel on the SE corner of Highline Street and Mountain Street (which former hotel is opposite the Anytown Post Office). The restaurant occupies a converted terrace-house and is conspicuously signed at the front above and at street level; its map location is: 2018 edition UBD, Map 32 A6; see also Google Earth image attached).

PARKING: Highline Street is metered along its entire length as are many of the side streets running off it to the north and south. The meters on Highline Street are turned off each day at 7:00 pm but not on the side streets (so I’m told) and resident-permit restrictions apply in some of these side streets after business hours.

There is a 30-minute FREE parking concession along the whole of Highline Street, but you still need to get the relevant ticket from the meter and display it on your dash board. So if you were to find a parking space on Highline Street relatively close to the restaurant after 6:30 pm and obtain a 30-minute free ticket and display it on your car dash, you would not have to worry about getting a parking fine for the rest of the evening.

Nearby to the restaurant, there is also a Council-owned free parking lot on the north side of Battle Street (2018 edition UBD, Map 32, B7) just west of its acute-angled junction with Highline Street at Federal Square (this lot is not exceptionally large off, and possibly ‘busy’ on Saturday nights). This lot is best accessed while driving east on Battle Street (so as not to have to turn left against the oncoming traffic if otherwise driving west). There is a 2-hour time-limit in this parking lot but I think that restriction ends at 6 or 7 pm (read the signs therein); so if you park there after 6:00 pm there shouldn’t be any trouble about being fined (see Google Earth image attached for location of this parking lot).

Additionally, there is free unlimited parking on all four sides of the MacDonald Terrace, a divided-lane street (with very wide intervening green-strip) that runs parallel to Highline Street one block north of Highline Street between Birchbroom Road (on the west) and Roundhouse Street (on the east). There is also free parking on Carton Road (= eastward extension of MacDonald Terrace; see attached Google Earth image). Parking on MacDonald Terrace and/or Carton Road will entail having to walk up-slope for a whole block to the restaurant, so is not recommended for anyone with mobility problems.

Anyone with a disability parking-permit can park anywhere free of charge any time unless signed-posted otherwise.

TIME OF ASSEMBLY: Can I suggest that we start assembling at Gurpreet’s between 6:45 and 7:15 pm? If we are all assembled by say 7:00 or 7:15 pm, then we could begin the dinner at 7:15 or as soon as possibly thereafter. Please try to be punctual so as to facilitate an ordered start to the dinner.

DRINKS: Gurpreet’s is both licensed and BYO. I suggest you buy the house beers (which include both Indian and local brands), but bring your own wine (because the restaurant wines are relatively expensive — this is true of all restaurants because the licence to sell alcohol is very expensive!). A large variety of both Indian and local non-alcoholic drinks are available. Also, there is a bottle shop with a large range of beers and wines just around the corner from the restaurant (= the only surviving licensed element of what used to be the Main Town Hotel), so if necessary additional drinks can be purchased there.

MENU: Some of you I know have dietary restrictions. Hence I suggest that those persons order their main course(s) separately, while the rest of us share the Banquet Menu. Anyone who doesn’t want to share in the banquet menu can order separately. I have already discussed this suggestion regarding the menu with the proprietor and that is OK with her.

RESTAURANT CONTACT DETAILS: In case anyone has last minute problems with attending the get-together or arriving there on time and need to alert the restaurant, it’s landline’s and mobile numbers are: Landline: 5555-5555; Mobile: 0413-555-555

Proprietor: Shivani Singh (= Gurpreet’s wife; she usually now looks after the Anytown restaurant and her husband [Gurpreet] and their two sons [Deepak and Vikas] look after their other restaurant at Highline Harbour and at their Function Centre at Congress; I don’t know whether Gurpreet and/or either of his sons will be at the Anytown restaurant on Saturday night).

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ACCESS: Busses 41 and 57 leave from Stand A at the QVB in the Melbourne CBD and stop in Mountain Street beside the Anytown Post Office (and across the road from the bottle shop). Both these buses will return you to the Melbourne CBD from bus-stops virtually outside the restaurant.

Edited version (250 words)

Details for my 50th birthday dinner

Date and time: 6:45pm for 7:00pm, Sat 1 Dec 2018

Place: Gurpreet’s Indian Restaurant, 280 Highline St, Anytown (almost opposite the Anytown PO); 5555 5555 or 0413 555 555

Food and drinks:

  • Banquet Menu. If you have dietary restrictions, order your main course separately
  • The restaurant is licensed and BYO. Suggestion: Purchase beer there, but BYO wine. There’s a bottle shop around the corner


  • Metered parking to 7pm along Highline St (first 30 minutes free—so you could get there at 6:30, but you must display a ticket on your dashboard)
  • Free but small parking lot on the north side of Battle St, near the junction with Highline St at Federal Square; usually 2-hour limit, but check signs as likely no limit after 6 or 7pm. Best access is if you’re driving east on Battle St
  • Free unlimited parking on all sides of MacDonald Tce between Birchbroom Rd and Roundhouse St (parallel to Highline St and one street away). Avoid if you have mobility issues as you have to walk up a hill
  • Free parking on Carton Rd (extension of MacDonald Tce). Also avoid if you have mobility issues
  • Side streets: Avoid; likely only for residents with permits.

Public transport: Take bus 41 or 57. Both depart from Stand B at the QVB and stop in Mountain St beside the Anytown PO (across the road from the bottle shop and restaurant). The bus stop for the return trip is outside the restaurant.


Contact me (details on the About page) if you think your written communications could benefit from editing such as this.