Archive for June, 2011


What goes into a Project Charter?

June 30, 2011

If you’ve been given the task of setting up a Project Charter document (also known as a ‘Terms of Reference’ document), you might not know where to start.

Here’s a broad outline of the major headings you are likely to need, from the people at Mentoric:

  1. Background
  2. Objectives
  3. Scope
  4. Constraints
  5. Assumptions
  6. Roles and Responsibilities
  7. Key Deliverables

For an expanded list — with subheadings — see this article:

[Link last checked June 2011]


Excel: Save a worksheet as an image file

June 29, 2011

You can save an Excel worksheet to several formats, but, surprisingly, you cannot save it — or a selection from it — as an image. I would have thought this simple function would have been an option in Excel 2007 or 2010, but it’s not.

Saving to PDF (and then to an image format) is an option if the worksheet is not particularly wide, but as soon as the worksheet stretches over more than one page, PDF is not suitable unless you want to cobble together several PDF files to make one image.

After trying several methods and searching the internet, I figured out the best way to do it; this method works in Excel 2003, 2007, and 2010:

  1. Select the worksheet cells containing the data, chart, etc. you want to save as an image (turn off grid lines if you don’t want them too).
  2. Copy the selection to the clipboard (Ctrl+C).
  3. Open a graphics editor. My personal preference is SnagIt, but Microsoft Paint works just as well.
  4. Paste the selection into your graphics editor (Ctrl+V).
  5. Save the pasted image as a GIF (suitable for simple line drawings), JPG (suitable for photos only), or PNG (suitable for almost anything).

From my internet searching, it sounds like this is something many people want to do, so it would be good if Microsoft could offer a ‘save as image’ option from Excel.

Aside: Some wit on the internet had this to say about how to save an Excel worksheet as an image:

Take a photograph using your phone, send it to your home email,  then sketch an artist’s impression of said Excel sheet based on the photo content, scan that into your hard drive, send back to work and save it.

Another had this method:

  1. Stick a sheet of tracing paper to your monitor.
  2. Then make a brass rubbing of the Excel table.
  3. Remove the tracing paper and pour plaster of paris over the top.
  4. Cover in spray mount and glitter.
  5. Shake off the excess and voila!

[Link last checked June 2011]


Search limitations

June 28, 2011

There’s absolutely NO technical reason why, in 2011, a search of a website’s database should be limited in the results it displays and in the search terms entered. There are plenty of free and paid search and indexing services that allow full text searches of databases without such limits.

So why does one of the only public sources of Australian music have a really crappy sub-par search? The site is the official site of the Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA) and the Australasian Mechanical Copyright Owners Society (AMCOS), and its search capabilities are frustrating, to say the least.

Here are some examples from some recent searches I tried, highlighting some of the issues I found in the first five minutes. I gave up after that…

Issue 1: You can’t search for a writer without a title or performer

I searched for an Australian songwriter, Ross Wilson, and got this result:

Cannot search for a songwriter alone

Cannot search for a songwriter alone

I got the same result whether I searched for Wilson, Ross, Wilson*, Wilson Ross or Wilson combined with any other name, and with all other songwriter names I tried. So, you have to know a performer or title or a songwriter’s works to be able to find the songwriter in the database. That’s just crazy!

By the way, their own 5-point Help says that I can put in a writer (first point) and doesn’t tell me I have to also enter a title or performer:



Issue 2: Search results are limited to 750

I put in Rolling* as the performer and got this:

Search stops if more than 750 results

Search stops if more than 750 results

But instead of showing me the first 750 results found of these 802, I got no results list at all. With only 802 possible results in this search, there’s a good chance that what I want is in the first 750, so why can’t the system allow me to see those 750? Sure, I got a message about narrowing my search results to get a better result, but let me at least have the option of viewing the 750 found. Better still, show me ALL results and let me decide if there are too many for me to deal with. Google does this all the time with results sets in the millions.

Issue 3: Wildcard searches have a 5-character minimum

This one is just crazy. There are plenty of performers and bands that have fewer than five characters in their name but you cannot search for them using the asterisk wildcard. What if you know one name of a performer but not the other (e.g. you know that one of the first Australian Idol winners was called Guy but you can’t remember his surname)? You can’t search for Guy* without generating an error message:

Five or more characters are required for a wildcard search

Five or more characters are required for a wildcard search

Issue 4: Searches for a 4-character performer take ages

If you enter a four-character performer’s name with no wildcard (e.g. Barb), the search takes forever and eventually you get a 25-item result list. Other searches of longer names or with wildcards generate many more results (or error messages) and are shown in a few seconds. But not when the performer’s name is short.

Issue 5: Symbols in a search term generate an error

There’s no excuse for this one — if non-alphanumeric characters are not acceptable as the first character in a search term, why not have the system strip them out or ignore them? Instead, you get get an error message and have to re-enter your search term:

Non alphanumeric characters aren't stripped from a search term

Non alphanumeric characters aren't stripped from a search term

Interestingly, a Google search for $64000 question came up with this APRA web page, which is NOT found via APRA’s own search:


As I said, I gave up using this database after a few minutes. I didn’t try any sort of Boolean searching as I suspect that would just have raised my blood pressure.

If you’re keen, you can search this database yourself here:

[Link last checked June 2011]


How the CIA can help technical communicators

June 27, 2011

The CIA? And technical communicators? What the…?

Well, there’s more of a connection than you’d suppose. The ‘Phoenix Questions’, for starters. Although these questions are for training new agents to look at a problem from all angles, the set of questions can be applied to pretty much any problem, project, issue, challenge — or any new documentation effort!

Here’s a snapshot of some of the problem-solving ‘Phoenix Questions’; for the complete list, go to

sample Phoenix Questions

sample Phoenix Questions

[Link last checked June 2011]


Word: Dialog Box names for VBA

June 24, 2011

If you’re using VBA in Word, you may need to call or modify a dialog box and its settings.

The problem is finding out what all the dialog boxes are named, and what arguments they can take. Scrolling through a long list in the VBA editor is not for the faint-hearted! And the VBA Help isn’t very helpful.

However, you can find lists of all dialog boxes for Word 2007 and 2010 on the Microsoft website, along with the arguments you can use to get or set values:

If you need to reference these often, print out these lists.

[Links last checked June 2011]


Word: Macros to delete all tables and figures

June 23, 2011

I have NO idea why you might want to do this, but figured I’d share these two macros — one is to delete all tables, and the other is to delete all figures from a Word document.

The macro to delete all tables is from Allen Wyatt’s Word VBA Guidebook (; the one to delete all figures was one I created based on the tables one. However, it wasn’t easy! Unlike tables (Table object), figures aren’t under normal words like ‘figure’, ‘picture’, ‘photo’, ‘diagram’, or ‘image’ — no, they are part of the InlineShape object! That bit of information took some time to find.

Please use with caution — these macros WILL delete every table or figure, except those in your document’s headers and footers.

Macro to delete all tables in a document

Sub TablesDeleteAll()
    Dim tbl As Table
    For Each tbl In ActiveDocument.Tables
    Next tbl
End Sub

Macro to delete all figures in a document

Sub FiguresDeleteAll()
    Dim fig As InlineShape
    For Each fig In ActiveDocument.InlineShapes
    Next fig
End Sub

[Links last checked June 2011]


How long to edit a 50-page software manual

June 22, 2011

The question

Here’s the issue as posed by a member of an email discussion list I’m on:

I’m currently conducting a study to determine the average time spent by a Technical Writer/Editor to proofread a technical document. Assume that the document is a 50-page typical technical manual of a PC software. I would appreciate if you could share your estimates for the task.

My answer

It depends… And it depends on a lot of things. The length of the document (50 pages) is only one very tiny factor. Here are some ‘it depends’ questions, in no particular order.

  • What do you mean by ‘proofread’? Just a quick look through for typos, punctuation errors, misspellings, etc.? or a more thorough copyedit (including such items as I list here: Do you actually mean a technical edit, where the editor is also verifying the validity of the information against the application? Or a substantive edit where the editor can move sections around for better understanding, more logical flow etc?
  • How big are the document’s pages? An A5 document’s 50 pages is not the same as 50 pages of A4 or A3, for example. So giving us a ballpark figure of a 50-page document is not very useful without knowing the page size.
  • How much text is on each page, versus screen shots, tables, figures etc.? And do all these have to be checked? (For example, I check text on figures/screen shots as well as in tables.)
  • How much of the document is made up of front matter and end matter, and do these elements need to be checked? (e.g. TOC, glossary etc.)
  • Is it assumed that the editor knows anything about the domain/subject matter? Someone without any knowledge of the area is likely to take much longer to edit the document. I would find it very difficult to edit documentation for complex financial software used by banks, whereas editing 3D geological modeling software would be fairly easy for me.
  • Does any software have to be installed by the editor before they can edit the document? If so, are there other things that need to be installed for the software to run (special databases, virtual machines, Java apps, etc.)? Will this installation and configuration time been taken into account in the estimate?
  • How many review cycles are included in the edit? Just because an editor recommends something, doesn’t mean that the author will accept that recommendation and discussions, meetings etc. may need to be factored in.
  • How will the editing be done? Hard copy mark up? Acrobat mark up? Word’s Track Changes? something else?
  • What format is the documentation in, and is that format able to be edited directly? e.g. a CHM is hard to edit directly, whereas a Word document is easy.
  • What’s the state of the writing? Does the author have good command of the language in which they are writing? Is the author experienced in technical writing? As I state in my blog post that I linked to above, a 350-page document from a good author may take as long for me to edit as a 40-page document from an author whose writing needs a lot of editing.
  • How much mechanical stuff does the editor need to fix? Things such as headers, footers, styles, apply a template, add document control tables etc.
  • As far as time goes, are you expecting the editor to do the editing in one session, or spaced out in between their other jobs? Editing is tiring on the eyes, brains, shoulders and neck, and doing it solidly for eight hours at a time is ergonomically unsound.

I’m sure there are many more ‘it depends’ factors, but these are a good starting point in trying to scope out an estimate. There’s no way I could give an estimate based on the original question, but if I found out the answers to the questions above, I’d be in a better position to do so.

Related blog posts:

[Links last checked June 2011; photo from:]


Rewarding people

June 21, 2011

Years ago, I worked for a software company, the first company I worked for after leaving teaching. My job lasted from 1992 to 1998, when the company imploded (a long story best told over a bottle of wine!). It was a small company (five or six when I started and 21 staff at the maximum). The boss, Allan, was the initial developer of the software and also the owner of the company.

Allan was not a good people or business manager. He was terrific at the visionary and computer and technology stuff, but he failed miserably in his interactions with staff and his knowledge of the day-to-day running of a business. Fortunately, he had employed some great people who looked after much of that for him, often without his knowledge.

Anyhow, that’s all a preamble to one ‘management’ technique of his that I never understood. When the company was doing well (as we did for several years), Allan rewarded staff with monetary bonuses at the end of the financial year (June 30 in Australia), believing that extra money was a great motivator and a suitable reward for our hard work, which had contributed to the company’s success.


I’ve never been in the ‘money as a reward’ camp — unless you’re very disciplined, cash is too easily frittered away on paying the bills or on day-to-day living expenses, or perhaps on an expensive meal at a restaurant you wouldn’t normally go to. It’s gone all too quickly, and is not remembered by the recipient. In fact, I can recall at least two substantial bonuses (in the thousands of dollars) in the time I worked there, but don’t ask me how much they were for as I’ve long forgotten. And don’t ask me what I used the money for, as I’ve forgotten that too — I know I didn’t purchase something I’d remember (like a holiday, or a large screen TV, or a computer, or a car). It probably went on paying a bit more off the mortgage.

I recall discussing this ‘money as a reward’ thing with Allan several times, but he was adamant that a bonus check or cash was the way to go. My argument was that we were all working so incredibly hard (60-100 hour weeks weren’t uncommon prior to a major release), that we didn’t have time to spend the money! I argued that it would be better to get a sense of each individual and tailor a bonus to suit them and their interests. Remember, we were a small company and very much like family — it wasn’t hard to find out what motivated individuals.

For me, it was travel, so a paid holiday to anywhere for a week — or even a weekend — would’ve been very welcomed. For one of my colleagues, getting her gym membership paid for the year would’ve been great motivation. For another, a gift voucher to a clothing or shoe store of her choice would’ve put a big smile on her face. Yet another was putting his three elementary school children through the private school system, so paying a term’s fees for one child would’ve helped him a lot.

Let’s assume that Allan gave us bonuses that ranged from $1000 to $5000, and he did this for all 20 staff — that’s a $20,000 to $100,000 outlay. If he’d just asked what we would’ve liked, he could’ve spent much less on each of us, and we’d have remembered the bonus for much longer than a couple of weeks. For example, to pay for me to have a weekend in a luxury hotel with meals covered as well, would have cost him less than $1000 (it was the early 1990s!); my colleague’s gym membership was probably about $500 for the year; the clothing/shoe voucher could have been for $500 or $1000; and the private school fees for one term for one child might have come in around $1000. So just on four people he’s outlaid a maximum of $3500, whereas to give us cash bonuses, he would’ve have laid out between $4000 and $20000.

Sure, there may have been tax reasons why he gave us cash bonuses, but knowing him as I did, I expect much of it was laziness and an unwillingness to really find out what excited people outside their work.

If you’re looking for ideas on how to reward staff with something other than cash bonuses, take a look at this list of Low Cost / No Cost Recognition for Teams and Individuals from Mentoric:

While bonuses and rewards may have their place, I get the most job satisfaction from sincere, unsolicited words of thanks and praise from colleagues and bosses for a job well done. Respect for what I do also goes an awfully long way.

[Links last checked June 2011]


Word: Replace and reformat text inside square brackets using wildcards

June 20, 2011

My husband wanted to select a long column of text and find any text that was inside square brackets and reformat it so that the text — and the square brackets — was 4 pt and blue (no, I don’t know why either…).

This is an ideal job for using wildcards in Word’s find and replace. However, square brackets are special characters in wildcard searches, so they have to be treated differently. With some help from and a bit of trial and error, I figured it out. I explain what all the settings mean after these steps, if you’re interested. Meantime, here’s my solution, which works in all versions of Word:

  1. Select the text you want to change (e.g. entire document, selected paragraphs, selected columns or rows of a table).
  2. Press Ctrl+H to open the Find and Replace dialog box.
  3. Click the More button.
  4. Select the Use wildcards check box.
  5. Put your cursor into the Find what field.
  6. Type the following exactly (or copy it from here): (\[)(*)(\])
  7. Go to the Replace with field and type: \1\2\3
  8. Click the Format button, and select Font.
  9. On the Font dialog box change the settings to what you want — in my husband’s case, this was 4 pt and blue — then click OK. Your Find and Replace dialog box should now look like this:

    Find and reformat text inside square brackets

    Find and reformat text inside square brackets

  10. Click Replace All.
  11. Once all replacements have been made, check that you got what you expected before making further changes to the document. If it’s all OK, save your document with the new changes.

What it all means

The three elements of the Find are:

  1. (\[) — You need to find a specific character (the opening square bracket), so you need to enclose it in parentheses. However, because the square brackets are special wildcard characters in their own right, you need to tell Word to treat them as normal text characters and not as special characters, so you put in a backslash ‘\‘ (also known as an ‘escape’ character) before the [.
  2. (*) — This tells Word to look for any characters after the opening square bracket. There’s no limit on what sort of characters (alpha, numeric, or symbols) Word is to find, or on how many there are.
  3. (\]) — This tells Word to stop the find at the first closing square bracket it finds after an opening square bracket followed by any other characters. As with the opening square bracket (1. above), the closing square bracket is a special wildcard character, so needs a backslash in front of it for Word to treat it as ordinary text, and it needs to be enclosed in parentheses as it’s an exact match you want.

There are no spaces between any of these elements — the aim is to find a string such as [green frog] and replace it with exactly the same text but formatted in a different color and with a difference font size.

The three elements of the Replace are:

  1. \1 — Tells Word to replace the first element of the Find with what was in the Find (the opening square bracket).
  2. \2 — Tells Word to replace the second element of the Find with the same text as what was found. In other words, keep the exact text as was found, but change it’s font size and color.
  3. \3 — Tells Word to replace the third element of the Find with what was in the Find (the closing square bracket).

As with the Find elements, there are no spaces between these elements. You still want [green frog], not [ green frog ].

See also:

[Links last checked June 2011]


Word: Transferring the QAT to another PC

June 17, 2011

Did you know you can transfer your custom Quick Access Toolbar (QAT) in Word 2007 or Word 2010 to another PC that has the same version of Word on it?

Full instructions on how to do so for Word 2007 and Word 2010 are on the ever-helpful WordTips site:

Note: When I searched for the Word.QAT file on my client’s Vista laptop (Word 2007 installed), the Vista search couldn’t find it at all, even though I tried several search methods. However, the file was listed under the file path mentioned in the WordTips article above, so I was able to copy it from there.

[Links last checked June 2011]