Archive for the ‘Styles’ Category

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Impact as a verb versus affect and effect

November 13, 2021

I’ve had the delightful privilege of hearing Canadian James Harbeck speak at several ACES (editing) conferences in the US. His passion is language and its origins, and his presentations have left me in awe of that passion, his knowledge and understanding, as well as his ability to speak in old and middle English to illustrate his points. So it was with delight that I read his recent post on using impact as a verb: https://sesquiotic.com/2021/11/09/impact/

As someone who edits environmental impact statements, plans, and reports, impact is a word that’s used OFTEN. I certainly don’t have the problem with it that other editors and writers have, and in many cases, in the context of the documents I edit, affect or effect just wouldn’t work.

If you want to spend a couple of hours learning about the quirks of language, take a look at some of James’ other posts. There’s an index to his posts on specific words here: https://sesquiotic.com/word-tasting-note-index/ and to his articles here: https://sesquiotic.com/article-index/

 

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Using personal pronouns in corporate and academic writing

October 13, 2021

There’s an unwritten rule (no doubt written, in some places) that you should never use personal pronouns (we, us, I, our, etc.) in corporate or academic writing. Instead, you need to use the third person (e.g. ‘the authors’), or eliminate altogether the person or organisation responsible. Blog posts are different—they’re more informal, so using personal pronouns is accepted there.

But why not everywhere?

I certainly don’t have an answer for that, but saying ‘it’s traditional’, ‘that’s how it’s always been done’, ‘that’s the rule’ just doesn’t cut it, in my opinion.

I’m sure the plain language people, and others, have done studies on this, but it was brought to mind when a client asked What are your thoughts on using personal pronouns in a scientific publication? I’ve occasionally seen it but it’s an unwritten rule that scientific publications are written from the point of view of a third party.

Their question reminded me of a 300p government report on hydrogeology I’d edited recently, which DID use personal pronouns. It was a refreshing change! As I wrote back to that client: ‘… I also like how you used ‘we’, ‘our’ etc. in a government report—it made it much more readable, and far easier to edit because I wasn’t trying to figure out or add who (person, department, role) was responsible for doing things.’

An example from that 300p report (‘we’ refers to the authors of the report):

‘We measured the initial groundwater level in all bores …

Before 2016, we had opportunistically monitored ….

Because the water levels in bore [XYZ] were likely to be tidally influenced, we recorded water levels hourly …’

Back to corporate/government writing… Often the third person is used to hide the person/entity responsible for an action or a response, and it may be quite deliberate. Government and corporate reports are very good at this—it’s CYA* at its best! By saying something was (or should be) done, but never saying WHO did it or is to do it, or WHO is responsible for any actions arising from it, no-one bears responsibility if it fails. The proverbial buck can be passed around forever, without ever stopping on someone’s desk.

My recommendation: Unless your style guide (in-house, external) says otherwise, consider using personal pronouns in your corporate/government/academic writing. And if your in-house style guide says not to, question WHY the authors of the style guide recommend this. ‘It’s tradition’ is not an acceptable answer, in my opinion. Your responsibility as a writer or editor is to your readers and ensuring they can not only read but also comprehend the material they’re reading.

* CYA = cover your arse (‘ass’ for those in the US)

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Non-breaking spaces

May 5, 2021

Tip: To insert a non-breaking space in Microsoft Word for Windows, press Ctrl+Shift+spacebar

I’m a big fan of non-breaking spaces. They force two things that should be kept together, together, and stop them from splitting at the end of a line onto the next line.

Because I edit technical documents that include values with a measurement unit (e.g. 35 mm), I need to make sure that the value stays with its unit of measure. I also use these special spaces to keep the day and month together (e.g. 24 April), to keep the initial for a genus with the species in Latin binomials (e.g. E. coli; T. rex), and for other elements that must be kept together for readability reasons (e.g. I’d insert a non-breaking space instead of a standard space in each part of this: 100 x 100 m).

Recently, on a Facebook editors’ group, someone asked what members of the group used non-breaking spaces for. Here are some of the various uses gleaned from that discussion:

  • Between currency numbers and their amounts, e.g. $5 million
  • Between initials, like W. E. B. Du Bois
  • Between named events with numbers, e.g. World War I
  • Between names of popes/emperors/kings/queens and their numerals.
  • Between ellipsis dots so they have proper spaces but don’t break over lines
  • Use them in:
    • dates (including eras: AD/BC; BC/BCE; ranges of years)
    • times
    • common Latin notation (e.g. c. 1850)
    • initials
    • titles/honorifics
    • numbers
    • measuring units
    • mathematical equations
    • other scientific notation (e.g. E. coli)
    • legal notation and statutes
    • proper nouns that include a number (e.g. Boeing 757; Mercedes-Benz E450 Cabriolet)
    • addresses (e.g. 1600 Pennsylvania Ave, 10 Downing St)
  • Between day and month or month and day (e.g. 13 April; April 13)
  • Between item numbers and write-on lines (e.g. Complete the sentences: The cat 1) ___ sitting on the mat. It was waiting 2) ___ its dinner.)
  • In legal section citations (e.g. § 15600 et seq.)
  • In biblical verses (e.g. 2 Corinthians 1–2)
  • To prevent a/an at the end of a line
  • Before em dashes to prevent them at the beginning of a line
  • Between ‘I’ and the next word, to keep ‘I’ from being alone at the end of a long line
  • Between a number and a fraction (e.g. 3 ½)

 

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You can change attitudes, one word at a time

April 9, 2021

One word. That’s all it was. One small word, but a word I’d seen used by those working for my main client a couple of times in the past few weeks (I’ve been working for them for 13+ years, and this was the first I’d seen the word in this context). To me, this word was SO out of context in how they’d used it that I wondered where it came from and why it was used in that way, and why it was starting to proliferate.

The easy thing would be to say nothing, do nothing, and let it slide on by. But I couldn’t, because that one word held a lot of very negative meaning in other contexts, a meaning that was offensive to many Australians and made others, like me, uncomfortable.

In other contexts, it’s a perfectly fine word, but it was out of place in the context where I’d seen it used.

So I spoke up. I emailed two people further up the chain to make them aware that this word was being used, that it was often offensive (uncomfortable at the very least) to many Australians, and suggested other perfectly fine words that could be used instead in that context. Speaking up always carries with it risk, but I’ve been emboldened by what I’ve seen in other situations this past year or so (political, BLM, LGBTQI+, sexual harassment etc.), so I figured the risk was worth it.

Here’s a summary of my email (identifying information removed) and the response I received—it shows that speaking up CAN change attitudes and perspectives. It’s just one small step to a kinder, more inclusive society.

My email

As you are well aware, [company] has policies on inclusion and diversity, including sensitivity to others’ cultures and experiences. In light of this, I’d like to bring to your attention something I’ve noticed recently from some in your team, and that’s the use of the term ‘native’ / ‘natives’ when referring to original Word documents. I’ve seen it used in emails and in folder names in the past few weeks. I don’t know where this has come from as it’s the first I’ve encountered it in 13 years working with [company] docs.

The problem is that this word has multiple meanings, not all of them good or acceptable or appropriate for the context, and for some people, this word is offensive. Macquarie Dictionary has this to say as a usage note: ‘The use of the term native to refer to an indigenous person is associated with European colonialism and is often regarded as old-fashioned and offensive.’

While that usage note refers to usage specifically in regards to indigenous people, it’s a term that is increasingly tainted with its colonial past even when used in other contexts. In terms of documents and their lifecycle, I see no reason to use this word (which could be offensive to many) when there are perfectly fine words that can be used instead—words that don’t have multiple meanings, or that don’t cause offence to others. Words such as ‘original’. The lifecycle of a document as it goes through revisions could be ‘originals’, ‘current’, ‘archived’, ‘in progress’ or similar, with no need to use the word ‘natives’.

I ask that you consider whether this term should be used or if it should be substituted with other, clearer, terms that are more appropriate to the document lifecycle. If you decide to not use this word in this context (it’s fine in regard to describing species), could you please pass on that decision to others on your team.

Response I received

… thank you for taking the time to help me understand that the term has been [is] offensive. I am checking in with our internal Document Control lead to determine the prevalence of this term in our internal systems. … its use here may have originated from our US parent office. As an immediate step, I will ask my team to stop using this term, and I will stop using the term also. … my apologies for any offence caused. And thank you for your ongoing support.

My follow-up email included this

Language use is cultural too—for example, those is the US may not have the same reaction to ‘native’ as we do in Australia, just as we use ‘thug’ here with little understanding of how offensive that word can be in the US.

It’s only by being aware how language can exclude or marginalise people that change can happen. That’s not to say that every word with multiple meanings needs to be sanitised, but that word usage needs to be considered when writing to ensure it doesn’t ignore, offend, or marginalise large sections of the readership.

Update August 2021: A major professional organisation for editors has made a statement on the use of ‘native’ in terms of ‘native’ and ‘non-native’ English speaker: https://blog.ciep.uk/ciep-terms/

[Links last checked August 2021]

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Aptronyms

September 22, 2020

An aptronym is where a name matches some characteristic of a person, typically their occupation. The first I ever experienced was when I was a kid—the town’s only butcher was… Mr Butcher!

More recently, I’ve come across other names that match their occupations or areas of expertise. For example, authors Whiting and Salmon have both written on fish, Swann has written on birds, and today I came across Fangue, who has co-authored an article on a species of sea krait!

See also: https://cybertext.wordpress.com/2013/10/23/names-suiting-occupation/

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Australian Style Manual update

August 1, 2020

The Australian Style Manual (ASM) was last published in 2002. There have been pushes to get it updated for a long time, and finally, it’s been done. Although it was written for government writing at all levels, the reality is that it’s been the only ‘official’ style manual in Australia and is used by Australian editors, especially for nonfiction writing.

The ASM (and Macquarie Dictionary) are the foundations for the style decisions I make when editing writing written by my Australian clients (as with any style guide, I base my decisions on the ASM, and have exceptions where the client’s preference conflicts with that in the ASM, or where the ASM doesn’t cover the issue).

You can find the free beta version here: https://www.stylemanual.gov.au/ (By the way, Macquarie Dictionary online is available for an annual subs of ~$40; they’ve just released their latest print edition [8th], but with 2 hefty volumes, I’ll pass! https://www.macquariedictionary.com.au/)

I haven’t gone through the online ASM extensively, but I’ve noticed a couple of things related to numerals:

  • all numbers 2 and above should be written as numerals (no more ‘if it’s under ten, write it out in full’)
  • thousands should now be written with comma separators (the previous ASM said to have no punctuation for 1000-9999, and a nonbreaking space as separator for 5 numerals and above; e.g. was 4567 and 25 678 943 – now 4,567 and 25,678,943)

I don’t know when the ASM will be released as a final version or whether they’ll charge as subscription fee for it, but I’ll likely start following its guidelines over the next few months as I become familiar with it.

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Gender-neutral (and other alternative) terms

July 30, 2020

This list is for me for future reference. There are plenty of lists out there of gender-neutral terms, but some apply much more to the work I do than others, so I’ve started to keep a running list.

  • chairman — chair, chairperson
  • craftsman / craftsmanship — artisan / artisanship  artistry, expert / expertise, skill, mastery, craft, craftspeople
  • fireman — firefighter
  • fisherman — fisher, angler (only in reference to recreational fishing), commercial fisher, fish harvester, fish industry worker, fishing licencee
  • foreman — supervisor, team leader
  • fraternity — community, camaraderie, guild, affiliation, club, fellowship, house, kinship, order, solidarity, family, society
  • man (as in ‘man the desk’) — staff, supervise, manage, lead, handle, cover, run, oversee, work, person
  • man basket / man box — crane basket, suspended personnel platform, crane cage, construction basket, personnel basket, workbox
  • man-hours — person hours, work hours
  • man-made — artificial, manufactured, machine-made, synthetic, human-made, human-caused, handmade, hand-built, fabricated, constructed, factory-produced
  • manhole — access hole/hatch, utility hole, maintenance hole, sewer hole (if specifically related to a sewer), utility access hole, personnel access hole/hatch, work hole, inspection hole; also, consider if ‘point’ or ‘hatch’ is more accurate than ‘hole’
  • mankind — humanity, humankind, humans, human beings, people
  • manned — staffed, occupied, crewed, piloted, operated, human-operated
  • manning — staffing
  • manpower — workforce, human effort, labour, staff, workers, human resources, personnel
  • manway — see manhole (see also: https://web.archive.org/web/20200811041433/https://www.petropedia.com/definition/7477/manway)
  • masterful — expert, accomplished
  • middleman — intermediary
  • patrolman — patrol, guard
  • policeman — police officer
  • unmanned — unpiloted, uncrewed, robotic, automatic (see also manned)
  • vessel master — captain, skipper
  • watchman – guard
  • workman — worker
  • workmanship — handiwork, craft, application

And others:

  • become blind to — ignore
  • black and white — monochrome
  • blind faith — unswerving belief
  • blind to — oblivious to, ignoring, overlooking
  • deaf to — ignoring, disregarding, unwilling to acknowledge, unwilling to hear or listen, callous
  • fresh eyes — fresh perspective
  • mecca — hub, hotspot, magnet
  • minorities — see the advice for ‘underrepresented’
  • put blinders on — limit (This one created some discussion on a Facebook group for editors as most said they only thought of that term in relation to limiting a horse’s vision. My response was that I’d wondered about that one too, but then I realised that there was another perfectly acceptable other word for the context that didn’t make me stop and think about it. If the reader has to hesitate to figure out the meaning, or to stop and think about the context, then I believe my job is to help take some of that hesitation away. In the context, it was used when referring to geologists who only see in rock formations what they want to see, and wasn’t related to preventing distraction [i.e. the geologists’ perspective was limited to what they’d learnt at university or in earlier jobs].)
  • spineless — cowardly, weak, unprincipled, corrupt
  • that’s lame — ridiculous
  • totem pole — organisational hierarchy, organisation chart (org chart)
  • underrepresented — check this one for context; if talking about groups of people, it may really mean ‘historically excluded’ or ‘traditionally excluded’ or just ‘excluded’

See also:

[Links last checked June 2022]

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Different interpretations

September 24, 2019

I’ve lived all my life in Australia (barring one year when I lived in Canada), and thus have been covered by Medicare, Australia’s health system. One of things that’s always been a feature of Medicare is the need to get a referral from a GP to see a specialist (I can’t remember if this was ever not the case, as it’s been so entrenched for much of my working life [Medicare officially started in 1984]). I say it’s a ‘feature’ though it’s often seen as a bug by the public, especially those with long-term conditions that need specialist treatment.

What the referral system does is stop Jo Public from calling a specialist for an appointment for every tiny little thing — it acts as a filter to stop overloading specialists with matters that can be dealt with by a GP. However, it does require a visit to the GP (at normal consultation rates) to get the referral, as well as the cost of the specialist if you are referred. So some people rightly feel like they’re paying twice.

And so to interpretation… In all the time Medicare has been in existence (45 years), I’ve always assumed that the date on the referral letter from the GP was the date the referral (typically 12 months) started from.

But not so, as my GP informed me yesterday when I asked him to post-date a referral closer to the time of the specialist’s appointment. It seems that post-dating a referral like this is deemed fraud in Medicare’s eyes, and then my GP explained that the date of referral starts from the date you see the specialist after being referred, NOT the date on the referral letter!

Well, call me surprised! He told me that many medical receptionists get this wrong too, which may have contributed to my belief that the date of the referral letter was the date the 12 months starts from.

I checked the Medicare website and it clearly states ‘date you see the specialist’ under the ‘Referral periods from a GP to a specialist’ subsection on this page: https://www.humanservices.gov.au/organisations/health-professionals/subjects/referring-and-requesting-medicare-services

[Link last checked September 2019]

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Should you use capitals for job titles?

July 23, 2019

Back in May 2019, I attended the biennial IPEd Conference for Australian and New Zealand editors. One of the things I took away was a snippet about capitalising job titles from Penny Modra’s plenary on Day 2 (https://cybertext.wordpress.com/2019/05/12/iped-conference-2019-day-2/) and how that can represent (consciously or subconsciously) hierarchies of greater and lesser jobs.

For example, if you cap Chief Executive Officer, Managing Director, or Senior Geologist, do you also cap Cleaner, Plumber, Sewage Truck Driver? If not, why not? Why should some job titles get capped and others not? What’s the implied social stratification here?

I’ve kept that in mind when working on the corporate reports I deal with, and today I queried an author who had used ‘truck operator’ when referring to a particular occupation, yet in the same sentence had used ‘Production Coordinator’ and ‘Site Supervisor’ when referring to other occupations in the same company.

My opinion: If you capitalise some job titles, then for consistency you need to cap them all, so a cleaner or truck operator needs to have the same recognition for their job as a production coordinator, otherwise you’re implying a hierarchy of ‘good’ or prestigious jobs over those that are less well-paid or recognised (less ‘worthy’). Either cap them all, or cap none of them (my preference). This may seem a trivial thing, but every time someone sees their job diminished by no caps when other positions are capped, it just further affirms (perhaps only subconsciously) that their job is less important. Yet if you took away all the sanitation workers, society would soon realise the importance of these jobs and the people who do them, and not give two hoots about any of the managing directors until the waste was sorted out.

Most style guides will have a section on when to capitalise occupational titles when referring to an individual (e.g. Doctor Sally Jones) or to a generic position (Sally Jones, a doctor). Just keep in mind that capitalising ‘Principal’ or ‘Doctor’ doesn’t make that job any more important than the uncapped ‘teacher’ or ‘nurse’—and ask yourself why you are giving some job titles more prominence than others.

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Spellcheck is useless against real words with different meanings

February 1, 2019

An example of where spellcheck is useless, and where you need human eyes to check your work before it goes out. I received a letter today from an Australia-wide company that conducts hearing checks. At the bottom of the letter was this set of boxes. I spotted two major errors straight away that spellcheck wouldn’t pick up (and no, one of them wasn’t ‘tick’ — Australians use ‘tick’ more than ‘check’ when referring to boxes, though a ‘the’ wouldn’t have gone astray in that instruction).

The errors I picked up were ‘everyday’ instead of ‘every day’, and ‘know’ instead of ‘no’. Neither instance would have been flagged by spellcheck. The message here — get someone else to check your work before it goes out to a national audience!